7 - Prevention and Treatment of Virus Diseases: Antiviral...

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Prevention and Treatment of Virus Diseases: Antiviral Drugs Drug: Viruses: Chemical Type: Target: Vidarabine Herpesviruses Nucleoside analogue Virus polymerase Acyclovir Herpes simplex (HSV) Nucleoside analogue Virus polymerase Gancyclovir Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Nucleoside analogue Virus polymerase (needs virus UL98 kinase for activation) Nucleoside-analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) : AZT (Zidovudine), ddI (Didanosine), ddc (Zalcitabine), d4T (Stavudine), 3TC (Lamivudine) Retroviruses (HIV) Nucleoside analogue Reverse transcriptase Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) : Nevirapine, Delavirdine Retroviruses (HIV) Nucleoside analogue Reverse transcriptase Protease Inhibitors : Saquinavir, Ritonavir, Indinavir, Nelfinavir HIV Peptide analogue HIV protease Ribavirin Broad spectrum: HCV, HSV, measles, mumps, Lassa fever Triazole carboxamide Virus replicase (complex action, direct or indirect) Amantadine / Rimantadine Influenza A strains Tricyclic amine Matrix protein / haemagglutinin Interferons Hepatitis B and C Protein Cell defense proteins activated Historically, the discovery of antiviral drugs has been largely fortuitous. The key to success is specificity , e.g. Paul Erlich's "magic bullets". Any stage of virus replication can be a target for a drug, but drug must be more toxic to virus than to the host. CHEMOTHERAPUTIC INDEX = Dose of drug which inhibits virus replication / Dose of drug which is toxic to host The smaller this value of this number the better, i.e. several orders of magnitude difference is required for a really safe drug. 1
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Modern technology allows deliberate design of drugs, but to do this, need to "know your enemy": Molecular biology - understanding viral replication and producing specific targets for inhibition Computer aided design (C.A.D.) Strategies for antiviral therapy Commonly used therapuetically. ASAP after infection or clinical signs of infection. Any of the stages of viral replication can be a target for antiviral intervention. The only requirements are: That the process targeted be essential for virus replication. 1. That the theraputic agent is active against the virus while having "acceptable toxicity" to
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This note was uploaded on 10/28/2010 for the course SCI biol3214 taught by Professor Lam during the Spring '10 term at CUHK.

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7 - Prevention and Treatment of Virus Diseases: Antiviral...

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