BIOL0131_L10 handout_2009

BIOL0131_L10 handout_2009 - 1 Basic Medical Microbiology...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Basic Medical Microbiology Lecture 10 Malaria Malaria Overview • Malaria is a mosquito vector-borne infectious disease caused by a protozoan parasite The Anopheles mosquito Plasmodium falciparum • Each year it infects over 500 million people • 1-3 million people die annually from malaria • Most infections and death are in sub- Saharan Africa – Major association with poverty – Occurrence stiFes economic development 2 Areas where malaria is endemic today Symptoms of malaria • Fever, shivering, arthralgia (joint pain) • Vomiting, anemia (caused by haemolysis) • Enlarged liver and spleen, renal failure • Convulsions, coma, death –Severe malaria can cause death within days • The ‘classic’ malaria symptom is a cyclical coldness followed by rigor and fever lasting 4-6h – Every 2d for P. vivax and P. ovale , every 3d for P. malariae – P. falciparum can have constant fever or recurrence every 36-48h • Renal failure releases haemoglobin to the urine and so may cause ‘blackwater fever’ 3 • Mortality rates can be >20% even with intensive medical care – Pregnant women and young children are especially vulnerable • Children with malaria may display abnormal posturing – Possibly related to elevated intracranial pressure – Results in severe brain damage History of malaria • There is evidence that malaria has infected humans for at least 50,000 years and so it has possibly always been a human pathogen for Homo sapiens sapiens – Close relatives of the malaria parasite also exist in our closest relatives, the chimpanzees • Ancient Egyptian, Chinese and Greek texts describe the intermittent fevers characteristic of malaria – South American Mayan and Aztec cultures do not and so it is assumed malaria was absent from this continent until introduced by European settlers and slaves from Africa in the 1500’s – As we will see later it was ironically South America that was the source of the Frst widely used anti-malarial therapeutic ! • ScientiFc advances in the study of malaria: – 1717 Giovanni Maria Lancisi • Proposed that the disease was transmitted by ¡ies • ¢irst used the term malaria (from mal aria meaning bad air) – 1820 Pierre Joseph Pelletier & Joseph Bienaime Caventou • Separated the alkaloids cinchonine and quinine from tree bark to allow creation of standard therapeutic doses – A RARE CASE O¢ THE CURE BEING DISCOVERED BE¢ORE THE CAUSE !...
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This note was uploaded on 10/28/2010 for the course BIO microbiolo taught by Professor Point during the Spring '09 term at HKU.

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BIOL0131_L10 handout_2009 - 1 Basic Medical Microbiology...

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