BIOL0131_L3 handout_2009

BIOL0131_L3 handout_2009 - Basic Medical Microbiology...

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1 Basic Medical Microbiology Lecture 3 Immune responses to infection • The immune response is a massive subject and we cannot go into all the details here – The detail I will go into during this lecture is sufFcient for basic medical microbiology • But if you want to read more, please see Chapter 8 in Sherri’s • Also, we have advanced courses in immunology that you can take in year’s 2 and 3 Introduction • Keeping the body free from infection by pathogens involves several lines of defence: • Skin and other barriers • Innate immunity • Adaptive immunity Skin • Physical barrier • Cells shed so microbes cannot establish themselves • Oil an sweat have an acid pH 3-3.5 to discourage microbes • Saliva, tears - lysozyme to digest bacterial cell walls • Mucous membranes trap microbes in respiratory tract • Stomach has an acidic pH
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2 Immunity • Internally, the immune system is how the body discrimintaes between self and non- self • It can be thought of as having 2 lines of defence: – Innate immune system • A non-speciFc response to pathogens – Adaptive immune system • Displays memory and speciFcity • The innate system is kind of a Frst line of defence to an intruding pathogen – It is therefore rapid – Has no memory to respond more efFciently to that pathogen in future • The adaptive system is slower but has a highly speciFc response and therefore a more potent response upon a second infection by a given pathogen • The adaptive system frequently incorporates cells and molecules of the innate system –E.g. complement (molecules of the innate system) may be activated by antibodies (molecules of the adaptive system) Cytokines Antibodies T cells B cells Adaptive Cytokines Complement Acute phase proteins Natural killer cells Mast cells Dendritic cells Phagocytes Innate Molecules White blood cells Immunity
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BIOL0131_L3 handout_2009 - Basic Medical Microbiology...

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