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Unformatted text preview: Object Relations Object
Human Relationships as the Human primary motivational force in life primary Object Relations Theory Object
British School British Melanie Klein Melanie W.R.D. Fairbairn W.R.D. D.W. Winnicott D.W. American School Margaret Mahler Margaret Otto Kernberg Meaning of Object Object Is the target of relational needs in human Is development development Object can mean person as well as thing “Objects of desire” “objects of fear” Objects can be represented as "good" or Objects satisfying one's needs and desires, or "bad" and not satisfying one's needs and desires. The internal mental representations of The others and to internal images of self as well others Object Relations Theory Object Encompasses the transformation of interpersonal Encompasses relationships into internalized representations of relationships relationships Holds that drives emerge in the context of a Holds relationship (i.e. the infant-mother dyad) relationship Belief that drives are primarily geared to object Belief seeking rather than tension reduction seeking Object relations theorists are interested in inner Object images of the self and other and how they manifest themselves in interpersonal situations. manifest Object Relations Theory Object Focuses on the complex relationship of self to other. The interactions individuals have with other people The processes through which individuals internalize those interaction The enormous role these internalized object relations play ijn The psychological development psychological Explores the process whereby people come to experience Explores themselves as separate and independent from others themselves Based on the belief that all people have within them an Based internal, often unconscious world of relationships that is different and in many ways more powerful and compelling than “real” relationships than Object Relations Theory Object Built on drive and ego psychology, but is uniquely an Built interpersonal perspective (vs. intrapsychic) interpersonal The primary human motivation is to have relationships with The other people (rather than to gratify sexual and aggressive drives) drives) A person’s character or personality is significantly shaped person’s by their early interactions with primary caregivers during critical developmental stages Early experiences are internalized and become organized Early into mental representations or cognitive schemas of one’s self in relation to objects (important others) self Object Relations Theory Object These schemas form the person’s "internal world" (vs. These external reality) They influence the way (are lenses through which) a They person experiences and relates to the external world Character disorders are viewed as the external Character manifestation of inaccurate internal schemas of interpersonal relations resulting from specific developmental deficits developmental Inaccurate schemas lead a person to assume a rigid and Inaccurate maladaptive interpersonal stance that prevents them from being fulfilled in important areas of life (love, work, play) Basic Concepts Basic
Primary, Basic Attachment The primary, biological, and absolute need in human The beings, necessary for the survival of the species beings, Good-enough mother Mother does not have to be perfect for normal Mother development development The most important quality is a capacity for attunement to The the baby’s changing development needs the Transitional objects Offers ways for the child to hold onto the internal Offers representations of others when she is not yet able to do so on her own on Basic Concepts Basic
Holding environment Holding Capacity of the mother to create the world in such a way Capacity for the baby that she feels held, safe, and protected from dangers without and protected as well from the dangers form emotions within Object constancy Object Mahler: object constancy is "the capacity to recognize and Mahler: tolerate loving and hostile feelings toward the same object; the capacity to keep feelings centered on a specific object; and the capacity to value an object for attributes other than its function of satisfying needs." its Development of Personality Development It is our interactions with significant others, It from birth onward, that shapes how our genetic predispositions will be expressed. It is through our relationships with the It significant people around us that we take in parts of others (objects) and slowly build a self-structure, which we eventually call a personality. personality. Development of Personality Development Primitive defense mechanisms are used to Primitive manage intense feeling states The caregiver’s ability to provide a holding The environment (Winnicott) or contain (Bion) the infant’s intense feeling states of anxiety, frustration, and rage frustration, Development of Personality Development Ideally, the caregiver is able to tolerate these Ideally, feelings, thereby transforming them into more benign experiences which the infant can introject back into his/her internal world This helps the child learn to tolerate feeling states, This soothe themselves, and develop a positive view of self (worthy and lovable) in relation to others (trustworthy and loving) In contrast, environmental failure leads to affect In dysregulation, coping deficits, and impaired object relations (negative view of self and other) Separation -Individuation Separation Separation-individuation is the name Margaret Mahler gave to the process by which internal maps of the self and of others are formed. These experiential maps, or internal representations, are These built up through interactions with caregivers during the period spanning birth to three years of age, and consist of both positive and negative aspects of experience within the relationship. relationship. According to Mahler, it is the ability to integrate frustrating According and pleasurable aspects of experience with another person that leads to a stable sense of self that can tolerate fluctuating emotional states within the self and with others. Healthy Functioning Healthy separation-individuation - process used to separation-individuation achieve the goal of adult autonomy achieve "object constancy" (the ability to internalize "object the primary caregiver and hold that figure in memory), memory), Unhealthy Functioning Unhealthy theorists see psychological dysfunction as an expression of theorists being stuck at a stage of development, unable to mature further. dysfunctional and symptomatic behaviors are really an dysfunctional immature attempt to resolve early traumas. Psychopathology is an expression of traumatic self-object Psychopathology internalizations from childhood acted out in our current relationships. relationships. psychopathology is the inability to overcome these psychopathology developmental impasses and remain in a state of immaturity and resulting destructive relationships. Defense Mechanisms Defense Splitting Introjection Projection Projective Identification Splitting Splitting Splitting- an unconscious process that actively Splittingseparates contradictory feelings, selfseparates representations, or object representation from one representations, another another A way to organize the world for the baby `allows infant to separate good from bad, pleasure `allows from unpleasure, love from hate so to preserve positively colored experiences, affects, selfpositively representations, and object representations safely representations, Introjection Introjection The process of internalizing aspects of the The object or whole relationships with objects object What is taken in from outside objects What becomes part of the person’s self representation representation Projection Projection Evacuating an unacceptable and/or Evacuating intolerable impulse, feeling, or thought into another person impulse toward infidelity attributed to spouse Aim of projection is to make the self feel all Aim right, devoid of badness right, Projective Identification Projective The patient unconsciously projects an object The representation or self representation into clinician. representation The clinician unconsciously identifies with what is The projected and begins to behave or feel like the patient. The clinician psychologically processes the The projected contents, modified to some extent before finally returning to the patient through reintrojection Example –p155 in Flanagan Example Psychotherapy Psychotherapy Object relations therapy assumes that familiar conflicts from early Object childhood help create a blueprint of how the self-system will develop and maintain relationships later in life An object relations approach to therapy helps the patient gain insight An into their internal world and modify their maladaptive interpersonal schemas Psychotherapy is the resolution of these self-destructive patterns of Psychotherapy relating so we can mature and self-actualize. relating Psychotherapy is a process of overcoming these developmental Psychotherapy delays and freeing the patient to go forward with his or her development. The role of the therapist is to provide an empathic "holding The environment" within which the patient is able to resolve these destructive developmental impasses and move away from their dependency needs toward autonomy and full functioning adulthood. Psychotherapy Psychotherapy Object relations therapy resolves conflicts growing out of Object human relationships by developing an understanding of the unique pattern of distortions and manipulations the patient uses to establish and maintain relationships. Since the dysfunctional pattern is a blueprint imbedded in Since the drama of the patient’s family of origin, it emerges in all relationships including the therapeutic relationship. The task of the therapist is to provide a safe environment The that will allow the dysfunctional pattern to emerge and then find empathic ways of confronting it. ...
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