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ulaby_sample_ch1 - C H A PT E R 1 Circuit Terminology...

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C H A P T E R 1 Circuit Terminology Chapter Contents Cell-Phone Circuit Architecture 1-1 Historical Timeline 1-2 Units, Dimensions, and Notation 1-3 Electric Charge and Current 1-4 Voltage and Power 1-5 Circuit Elements Chapter Highlights Objectives Upon learning the material presented in this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Differentiate between active and passive devices; analysis and synthesis; device, circuit, and system; and dc and ac. 2. Point to important milestones in the history of electrical and computer engineering. 3. Use multiple and submultiple prefixes. 4. Relate electric charge to current; voltage to energy; power to current and voltage; and apply the passive sign convention. 5. Describe the properties of dependent and independent sources. 6. Define the i - v relationship for: a voltage source; a current source; a resistor; a capacitor; and an inductor. 7. Describe the operation of SPST and SPDT switches.
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2 CHAPTER 1 CIRCUIT TERMINOLOGY Cell-Phone Circuit Architecture Electronic circuits are contained in just about every gadget we use in daily living. In fact, electronic sensors, computers, and displays are at the operational heart of most major industries, from agricultural production and transportation to healthcare and entertainment. The ubiquitous cell phone (Fig. 1-1), which has become practically indispensable, is a perfect example of an integrated electronic architecture made up of a large numberofinterconnectedcircuits. Itincludesamplifiercircuits, oscillators, frequency up- and down-converters, and circuits with many other types of functions (Fig. 1-2). Factors such as compatibility among the various circuits and proper electrical connections between them are critically important to the overall operation and integrity of the cell phone. Usually, we approach electronic analysis and design through a hierarchical arrangement where we refer to the overall entity as a system , its subsystems as circuits , and the individual circuit elements as devices or components. Thus, we may regard the cell phone as a system (which is part of a much larger communication system); its audio-frequency amplifier, for example, as a circuit, and the resistors, integrated circuits (ICs), and other constituents of the amplifier as devices. In actuality, an IC is a fairly complex circuit in its own right, but its input/output functionality is such that usually it can be Figure 1-1: Cell phone. represented by a relatively simple equivalent circuit, thereby allowing us to treat it like a device. Generally, we refer to Received Signal Transmitted Signal D/A and A/D Converters and Filters Antenna and Propagation RF Front-End IF Block Back-End Baseband ~ ~ Demodulator Modulator Microprocessor Control LO LO Human Interface, Dialing, Memory Battery Power Control Antenna Transmit Path Receive Path Diplexer/Filter RF Filter RF Power Amp Mixer RF Low Noise Amp Mixer IF Amp IF Amp IF Filter (Speech, video, data) In Out RF = Radio Frequency IF = Intermediate Frequency LO = Local Oscillator Mixer = Frequency Up- or Down-Converter Figure 1-2: Cell-phone block diagram.
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