Handout6

Handout6 - HANDOUT 6 REFLEXES A. DEFINITION: When stimulus...

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HANDOUT 6 REFLEXES A. DEFINITION: When stimulus arrives at the sensory receptors, information will be sent through afferent neurons to the CNS, the intergrating center for info evaluation and response ignition. Reflex is the neuromuscular response that is automatic otherwise called involuntary because it does not pass through the cerebral cortex , hence most of the time CNS processes it subconsciously ( in short, these reponses occur when we don’t even think about it) B. TYPES OF REFLEXES : 1. Based on the division of the nervous system: Somatic division: (think about skeletal muscle movement ): somatic reflexes Autonomic division (think about urination): autonomic reflexes. 2. Based on the site of integration in the CNS: Info integrated and processed in the spinal cord: spinal reflexes. They don’t necessarily need input from the brain in order to occur, but they definitely can be manipulated by the brain. Info integrated and processed in the brain: cranial reflexes. 3. Based on the number of neurons in the reflex pathway: Only 2 neurons: afferent neuron to carry info to the spinal cord (dorsal horn) and synapse with efferent somatic motor neuron (ventral horn) to carry input from the spinal cord to the skeletal muscle: monosynaptic reflex. Three or more: polysynaptic reflexes: at least two synapses, may include interneurons. Can have divergence ( one stimulus affect multiple targets), or convergence ( intergrated input from multiple sources to achieve one response) The higher the number of synapse take longer time, more synaptic delays the slower the reflexes Example given in class: tailgating: Red light signal in retina send info to the thalamus to the occipital lobes motor pathways for leg to step on the. Synaptic delays along the pathway can cause you to crash if you don’t allow enough time, speed, distance. 4. Based on whether the reflex is innate or learned( otherwise called conditioned reflex): Innate: born with it, for example: infants sucking milk, or knee jerk reflex Learned: for example: sweating when hearing the term: “mam phys test”. You discovered how difficult it is through the first mid-term, then when the second midterm comes your reflex already becomes automatic: sweating, butterfly in the stomach C. AUTONOMIC REFLEXES:
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Handout6 - HANDOUT 6 REFLEXES A. DEFINITION: When stimulus...

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