Vitamins

Vitamins - Vitamins (organic) Water soluble Vitamin B...

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Vitamins (organic) Water soluble Fat soluble Vitamin B Vitamin A Retinoids Source Brewer’s yeast, wheat germ, whole grains, meat (esp. liver) Form Animal: retinol Plant: carotenoids (β-carotene) Β-carotene ----------- 2 retinol B1 Thiamin Reaction thiamin thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP) Source Animal: fish oil, liver Plant: carrots, green leafy vegetables Function Facilitate decarboxylation rxn in primary metabolism and in transketolase Function Hormone like Retinol 1. Vision, esp. night vision Retinol binds to opsin to form rhodopsin, which absorbs light. 2. Repress adipogenesis Retinoic acid 1. Cellular signal-induces gene expression 2. Immune function, esp in GI track 3. Tissue structure, esp. for epithelial tissue deficiency Beriberi- energy metabolism is impaired, resulting in weak muscle, CNS impaired, thin, energy loss, apathetic Overdose none B2 Riboflavin Deficiency most serious def. 1RAE= 1µg retinol=12 µg β- carotene 1. Diarrhea in children 2. Blindness in children 3. Keratinization of epithelial tissue 4. Xerophthalmia (dry eyes, cornea damage) 5. infections Reaction Riboflavin B2 FAD (riboflavin attached to ADP) Function FAD involved in oxidation-reduction rxns such as dehydrogenation in TCA cycle Deficiency Inflammation of tongue Overdose Applies only to animal source 1. enlarged liver 2. headaches 3. hemorrhage 4. teratogen=>birth defects, miscarriage Overdose none B3 Nicotinamide Vitamin D Reaction Niacin exists in nicotinamide or nicotinic acid (this is the form we ingest, need to know the Form most active form: D3 cholecalciferol (sterol deriv.)
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structure) Nicotinamide is inserted into NAD or NADP Niacin Source ½ from food (protein is a good source) ½ from tryptophan (trp niacin) source Fish oil, fortified milk, uv light D3- animal source D2- plant source Deficiency 1. Pellagra (broken skin) 2. Dementia 3. Dermatitis 4. Diarrhea 5. death function hormone like 1. needed for ca and P metabolism 2. supports differentiation of skin 3. inhibits development of breast, colon, and prostate cancer 4. reduce infection (flu) Overdose flushing B6 Pyridoxal Reaction Pyridoxal pyridoxal phaosphate Need to know mechanism for tansamination Deficiency Rickets in children (inadequate ca and p deposition in bone, resulting weakened bones) Symptoms of rickets: enlarged head, joints, deformed pelvis
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This note was uploaded on 10/28/2010 for the course BIBC 120 taught by Professor Crawford during the Fall '08 term at UCSD.

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Vitamins - Vitamins (organic) Water soluble Vitamin B...

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