Handout-Week 9

Handout-Week 9 - Handout Week 9 Lecture 18 cont Taxonomic...

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Handout Week 9 Lecture 18 cont .- Taxonomic differences in ears: Terrestrial Vertebrates Vertebrate ears : -Eardrums captures sound a transfers them by small bones to the cochlea. This is filled with fluids and movement of fluids stimulates hair cells. -Frogs are birds have some pressure differential effect b/c two ears are connected on the inside ( This gives some directionality despite their small size ). - Frogs are largely limited to hearing frequencies below 4kHz . Birds limited to frequencies below 12kHz . - Mammals can detect sounds to 50-150kHz depending upon the taxon (bats have high frequency hearing). -Birds may track rapid modulations better than mammals, but mammals usually can detect softer sounds than birds and have finer frequency resolution. Ex. Barn Owl (two openings per ear; the left ear is higher than the right ear). Terrestrial vertebrates sound comparison: Max Frequency: Mammals>Birds>Frogs Frequency Resolution: Mammals>Birds>Frogs Sensitivity: Mammals=Frogs>Birds Time Resolution: Birds>Mammals>Frogs Cocktail party effect 1. Ability of certain animals (including humans) to extract meaningful information in an extremely noisy environment. 2. Animal ability is far better than our most sensitive instruments and computer algorithms. 3. Examples: Emperor penguins and flamingoes. Lecture 19: Whales Humpback Whale Song Killer Whales Mike Bigg studies two resident populations of killer whales (north and south). Along with resident whales there are also transients. He has discovered that individuals can be identified based on dorsal fin uniqueness. (Also resident whales have a curved fin while transients look more like a shark’s fin).
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