lec2 - Animal Behavior & Communication BIEB 1 66...

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Unformatted text preview: Animal Behavior & Communication BIEB 1 66 Lecturer: J ames C N ieh Course w ebsite http://webct.ucsd.edu Use y our U CSD e mail userid and p assword OR C ONTACT Academic C omputer Support USING LECTURE NOTES II. EVOLUTION AND NATURAL SELECTION The Origin of Species , 1859: a. Evolution: descent with modification definition b. Natural selection: Darwin's hypothesis for the principal agent of evolutionary change c. Natural selection is an inevitable consequence of certain conditions: 1) Heritable variation 2) Differential reproductive success breakdown 3) Accumulation of successful variations d. Some variants will then come to predominate e. Change in gene frequencies over time (i.e. evolution) f. As a consequence of natural selection, organisms become adapted to their environment. g. Good of the species or individual? e.g. lemmings running to sea vs. individual "cheaters" examples h. Approaches to natural selection 1. V. C. Wynne-Edwards (1962) - Group selection "epideictic displays" 2. W. D. Hamilton (1964) - Inclusive fitness LECTURE 2 Classical e thology a n d Tinbergen’s 4 Q uestions 3. G. C T illiams (1966) 4 Questions: LECTURE 2:. Winbergen ’s - Adaptation and natural selection Classical Ethology Part I 4. Emphasis on individual selection I. FOUR QUESTIONS OF TINBERGEN: 5. a. InProximate:ndividual selection is a much stronger general, i force1t.han group selection CAUSATION 2. DEVELOPMENT 6. b. Modern interpretations: Ultimate: George PriceFand David Sloan Wilson: Model of multi3. UNCTION level selection using "groupHelection" approach 4. EVOLUTIONARY sISTORY Evolution of trait groups (Many special conditions necessary) III. NATURE vs . NURTURE a. Classical ethologists vs . Comparative psychologists (operant-behaviorists) D. Lehrman and T. C. Schneirla : II. EVOLUTION AND NATURAL SELECTION b. Nature-Nurture: Salse dichotomy The Origin of f pecies , 1859: a. Evolution: descent with modification 1970s - b. daptationist / Evolutionary Paradigm A Natural selection: Darwin's hypothesis for the principal agent of evolutionary change Phenotype Natural selection enotype in a given environment. ertain c. = Expression of g is an inevitable consequence of c conditions: 1) Heritable variation IV. CLASSICAL ETHOLOGY 2) Differential reproductive success 3) Accumulation of successful variations C.O. Whitman: PigeonsSome variants will then come to predominate d. O. Heinroth : Ducks e. Change in gene frequencies over time (i.e. evolution) V. DISPLAYS : f. As a consequence of natural selection, organisms become adapted to their environment. 1 Tinbergen’s 4 questions PROXIMATE Immediate, moment of the behavior ULTIMATE deeper, ultimate purpose of the behavior Tinbergen’s 4 questions PROXIMATE 1 CAUSATION 2 DEVELOPMENT ULTIMATE 3 FUNCTION 4 EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY Why is this dog barking? Why is this dog barking? PROXIMATE 1 CAUSATION: Air flow over the larynx 2 DEVELOPMENT : learned from other dogs or innate ULTIMATE 3 FUNCTION : defending its territory 4 EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY : barking was advantageous, prevented injurious encounters II. EVOLUTION AND NATURAL SELECTION The Origin of Species , 1859: a. Evolution: descent with modification b. Natural selection: Darwin's hypothesis for the principal agent of evolutionary change c. Natural selection is an inevitable consequence of certain conditions: 1) Heritable variation 2) Differential reproductive success 3) Accumulation of successful variations d. Some variants will then come to predominate e. Change in gene frequencies over time (i.e. evolution) f. As a consequence of natural selection, organisms become adapted to their environment. g. Good of the species or individual? e.g. lemmings running to sea vs. individual "cheaters" NATURAL SELECTION 1) Heritable variation 2) Differential reproductive success 3) Accumulation of successful variations h. Approaches to natural selection 1. V. C. Wynne-Edwards (1962) - Group selection "epideictic displays" 2. 3. 4. 5. W. D. Hamilton (1964) - Inclusive fitness G. C. Williams (1966) - Adaptation and natural selection Emphasis on individual selection In general, individual selection is a much stronger force than group selection 2 Adaptation Does e volution h ave a g oal? GROUP SELECTION? GROUP S ELECTION? LEMMING h. Approaches to natural selection 1. In general, individual selection is a much stronger force than group selection 2. Modern interpretations: George Price and David Sloan Wilson: Model of multilevel selection using "group selection" approach (Many special conditions necessary) Evolution of trait groups George Price & David Sloan Wilson: Group s election c an o ccur w hen: 1) Within-group cost of altruism is offset by a group benefit. 2) Reproduction occurs within the trait group 3) Mixing phase III. NATURE vs . NURTURE a. Classical ethologists vs . Comparative psychologists (operant-behaviorists) D. Lehrman and T. C. Schneirla : b. Nature-Nurture: false dichotomy 3 1970s - Adaptationist / Evolutionary Paradigm Phenotype = Expression of genotype in a given environment. S A S S S S S S III. NATURE vs . NURTURE a. Classical ethologists vs . Comparative psychologists (operant-behaviorists) A S A S S S S S A S IV. CLASSICAL ETHOLOGY C.O. Whitman: Pigeons O. Heinroth : Ducks V. DISPLAYS : a. b. c. stereotyped behavior pattern used in communication; usually species-specific universal, unambiguous signals, often used in reproduction useful in reconstructing phylogeny : branching relationships among species showing patterns of common ancestry NURTURE B.F. SKINNER OPERANT BEHAVIORIST Phylogenetic trees = historical relationships among species Ex.: Gasterosteidae (stickleback fish) some displays genetically pre-programmed found in animals reared in isolation VI. FIXED ACTION PATTERNS ( FAP's ) a. complex sequence b. no subunits c. runs to completion d. invariant e. produced by innate releasing mechanism ( = IRM) e.g.: Goose retrieval response to an egg VII. KEY STIMULUS (KS) = RELEASER KS --> IRM --> FAP a. b. c. d. e. f. e.g.: Herring gull chicks studied by Tinbergen Red spot = KS Releases a pecking FAP Use of dummies to dissect components of stimulus Color, contrast & pointedness (all KS) Rate of motion of red spot NATURE V S. N UTURE A F ALSE D ICHOTOMY NATURE CLASSICAL ETHOLOGY VIII. CONFIGURATIONAL KEY STIMULI : a. b. c. d. 1. KS composed of multiple stimuli in relation to each other e.g. Duckling crouch response to silhouette ( Tinbergen ) HAWK versus DUCK Alternative explanation ( Schleidt ) : Habituation = The decline of a response to a stimulus that is presented repeatedly without reward or punishment Crouch response to any dark object moving overhead FAP is extreme of a continuum 2. 3. 4 III. NATURE vs . NURTURE a. Classical ethologists vs . Comparative psychologists (operant-behaviorists) D. Lehrman and T. C. Schneirla : b. Nature-Nurture: false dichotomy 1970s - Adaptationist / Evolutionary Paradigm Phenotype = Expression of genotype in a given environment. MODERN E THOLOGY = SYNTHESIS O F CLASSICAL E THOLOGY & C OMPARATIVE PSYCHOLOGY IV. CLASSICAL ETHOLOGY C.O. Whitman: Pigeons O. Heinroth : Ducks IV. CLASSICAL ETHOLOGY C.O. Whitman: Pigeons O. Heinroth : Ducks V. DISPLAYS : a. stereotyped behavior pattern used in communication; usually species-specific b. universal, unambiguous signals, often used in reproduction c. useful in reconstructing phylogeny : branching relationships among species showing patterns of common ancestry Phylogenetic t = h = historical relationships among species Phylogenetic trees reesistorical relationships among species x.: Gasterosteidae (stickleback f Ex.: EGasterosteidae (stickleback fish)ish) some displays genetically pre-programmed found in some displays genetically pre-programmed found in animals animals isolation reared inreared in isolation VI. FIXED ACTION PATTERNS ( FAP's ) a. complex sequence b. no subunits c. runs to completion d. invariant e. produced by innate releasing mechanism ( = IRM) e.g.: Goose retrieval response to an egg VI. FIXED ACTION PATTERNS ( FAP's ) a. complex sequence b. no subunits c. runs to completion d. invariant e. produced by innate releasing mechanism ( = IRM) e.g.: Goose retrieval response to an egg STEREOTYPED BEHAVIORS VII. KEY STIMULUS (KS) = RELEASER KS --> IRM --> FAP a. b. c. d. e. f. e.g.: Herring gull chicks studied by Tinbergen Red spot = KS Releases a pecking FAP Use of dummies to dissect components of stimulus Color, contrast & pointedness (all KS) Rate of motion of red spot VII. KEY STIMULUS (KS) = RELEASER KS --> IRM --> FAP a. b. c. d. e. e.g.: Herring gull chicks studied by Tinbergen Red spot = KS Releases a pecking FAP Use of dummies to dissect components of stimulus Color, contrast & pointedness (all KS) VIII. CONFIGURATIONAL KEY STIMULI : a. b. c. d. 1. KS composed of multiple stimuli in relation to each other e.g. Duckling crouch response to silhouette ( Tinbergen ) HAWK versus DUCK Alternative explanation ( Schleidt ) : Habituation = The decline of a response to a stimulus that is presented repeatedly without reward or punishment Crouch response to any dark object moving overhead FAP is extreme of a continuum VIII. CONFIGURATIONAL KEY STIMULI : a. b. c. d. 1. KS composed of multiple stimuli in relation to each other e.g. Duckling crouch response to silhouette ( Tinbergen ) HAWK versus DUCK Alternative explanation ( Schleidt ) : Habituation = The decline of a response to a stimulus that is presented repeatedly without reward or punishment Crouch response to any dark object moving overhead FAP is extreme of a continuum 2. 3. 2. 3. 5 FIXED ACTION PATTERN FIXED ACTION PATTERN (FAP) 1 2 3 4 COMPLEX SEQUENCE NO SUBUNITS RUNS TO COMPLETION PATTERN IS INVARIANT Key Stimulus (releaser) Egg Retrieval FAP Innate Releasing Mechanism (IRM) Fixed Action Pattern (FAP) Egg Retrieval FAP Herring Gull 6 Key stimulus VIII. CONFIGURATIONAL KEY STIMULI : a. b. c. d. 1. KS composed of multiple stimuli in relation to each other e.g. Duckling crouch response to silhouette ( Tinbergen ) HAWK versus DUCK Alternative explanation ( Schleidt ) : Habituation = The decline of a response to a stimulus that is presented repeatedly without reward or punishment Crouch response to any dark object moving overhead FAP is extreme of a continuum 2. 3. Configurational Key Stimulus Configurational Key Stimulus = Key stimulus composed of multiple stimuli in a specific relationship to one another 7 Hawk vs. Duck Hawk vs. Duck Cardboard model used to elicit escape reactions from young turkeys. It was effective when moved to the right but not when moved to the left ( Tinbergen , 1951) Habituation Habituation = Decline of response to a stimulus that is repeatedly presented, without reward or punishment 8 ...
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