lec3 - Animal Behavior & Communication BIEB 1 66...

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Unformatted text preview: Animal Behavior & Communication BIEB 1 66 Lecturer: J ames C N ieh Tinbergen’s 4 questions PROXIMATE CAUSATION air flows through syrinx DEVELOPMENT neural development allowed bird to develop species-specific songs ULTIMATE FUNCTION singing attracts mates, establishes territory EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY males that sung attracted more mates and were more successful at defending territory by limiting dangerous direct physical encounters. Animals inhabit unique, speciesspecific perceptual worlds LECTURE 3 CLASSICAL ETHOLOGY (Part II) Jakob von Uexk üll Today’s theme: sensory world Today’s theme: sensory world World of KS Innate Releasing Mechanism (IRM) World of KS Interactive FAP’s 1 STIMULUS S ETS LECTURE 3 : I. C lassical E thology Part II UMWELT ("surrounding world") = The subset of perceptible stimuli to which an animal responds when in a given motivational state a. b. water beetle Dytiscus Feeding umwelt : chemical stimuli from tadpoles Fritillary butterfly Argynnis Mating umwelt : visual cues from wing beat frequency: (8 beats/ sec) 1) Perceptual world 2) All effective stimuli 3) Key stimuli (elicit FAP) 4) Umwelt II. SUPERNORMAL RELEASER (STIMULUS) An exaggerated stimulus more effective than the natural KS a. b. Herring gull giant egg dummy cuckoos III. INTERACTIVE FAP SEQUENCES world Perceptual When a KS --> IRM --> FAP which in turn acts as KS All effective stimuli a. Frequent in courtship (3- spined stickleback, Tinbergen ) Key stimuli Umwelt subset of perceptible stimuli to which an animal responds when in a given motivational state b. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. c. 1. 2. 3. Male behavior: red belly and blue back of male: breeding display Umwelt snout-down posture: territorial male display (red delivery truck) red belly is KS for males to show territorial display male orientation also important zig -zag dance of males: courtship display swollen belly of females: KS for males supernormal releaser: “sex bomb ” dummy with swollen belly Female behavior: red belly is KS for females to show vertical acceptance display "headup" zig -zag dance is KS for female vertical acceptance display both color and motion necessary to release female fap IV. a. 1. 2. SEARCH IMAGES Key stimuli used to find food or other resources Ex: ticks KS of butyric acid (search image) then thermosensory umwelt UMWELT Example 1 Dystiscus: water beetle 2 Good vision, Good olfaction 1) Eats tadpoles 2) Tadpole behind glass 3) Add cotton swab, beetle attacks tadpole Dystiscus: water beetle Needs olfaction and vision for prey recognition, but must also be hungry to show behavior! Mating wing beat freq = 8 Hz UMWELT Example 2 Fritillary butteryfly: Argynnis 3 Set flicker rate to 75 Hz Set flicker rate to 75 Hz Males are super-attracted! SUPERNORMAL RELEASER SUPERNORMAL RELEASER = An exaggerated stimulus more effective than the natural Key Stimulus Parton/Schwarzenegger Effect II. SUPERNORMAL RELEASER (STIMULUS) An exaggerated stimulus more effective than the natural key stimulus a. b. Herring gull giant egg dummy cuckoos SUPERNORMAL RELEASER EXAMPLE 1 III. INTERACTIVE FAP SEQUENCES When a KS --> IRM --> FAP which in turn acts as KS a. Frequent in courtship (3- spined stickleback, Tinbergen ) 4 b. 1. Male behavior: red belly and blue back of male: breeding display Herring Gull Parton/Schwarzenegger Effect SUPERNORMAL RELEASER EXAMPLE 2 normal AUSTRAILIAN F INCH CHICK B EGGING C ALLS NORMAL R ELEASER supernormal 5 Supernormal r eleasers Davies e t a l. 1 998 Cuckoo b egging c all simulates c all o f w hole brood o f c hicks Cuckoo c hick p rovides a visual & a coustic supernormal s timulus! Today’s theme: Complexities World of KS Innate Releasing Mechanism (IRM) tinbergen Interactive FAP’s FAP—>KS—>FAP… 6 INTERACTIVE FAP SEQUENCES Mating in the 3-spined stickleback Snout-down posture (spines erect) = aggressive display MALES (ΜΜ) Μ vertical posture = Μ Key Stimulus Key Stimulus Μ Red Belly = Μ Key Stimulus Male Zig-zag Dance 7 Female’s swollen belly = key stimulus for males FEMALE’S SWOLLEN BELLY The female “Sex Bomb” Μ zigzag dance = KS for F “head-up” MALE MATES WITH UP TO 10 FEMALES female preferences No red belly model: zigzag dance 50% f emales r espond Red belly model that zigzag dances 100% f emales r espond 8 IV. a. SEARCH IMAGES Key stimuli used to find food or other resources 1. 2. Ex: ticks KS of butyric acid (search image) then thermosensory umwelt SEARCH I MAGE = Key s timulus used b y predators searching f or prey SEARCH I MAGES A T ICK’ S U MWELT BUTYRIC A CID HAIR HEAT BUTYRIC A CID K SBUTYRIC A CID— > F A PLANDING MAMMALIAN S WEAT 9 REVIEW KS (key stimuli) Innate Releasing Mechanism (IRM) FAP cascades 10 ...
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