lec5 - Animal Behavior & Communication BIEB 1 66...

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Unformatted text preview: Animal Behavior & Communication BIEB 1 66 Lecturer: J ames C N ieh Lecture 5 Behavioral Endocrinology LECTURE 5 : B ehavioral E ndocrinology I. HORMONAL CONTROL OF BEHAVIORS T O D A Y’S T OPICS 1) a. b. Rhodnius Juvenile hormone HORMONAL CONTROL OF BEHAVIORS 2) REPRODUCTIVE FEEDBACK LOOPS 3) EFFECT OF SOCIAL STIMULATION Rhodnius p rolixis 1 Arrested D evelopment i n R hodnius IMPLANT CORPUS ALLATUM GLAND METAMORPHOSIS gypsy moths: ecdysone GIANT JUVENILE! METAMORPHOSIS gypsy moths: ecdysone METAMORPHOSIS gypsy moths: ecdysone METAMORPHOSIS gypsy moths: ecdysone METAMORPHOSIS gypsy moths: ecdysone 2 VERTEBRATE BEHAVIORAL ENDOCRINOLOGY Vertebrate Endocrinology Motivation controlled by endocrine system = combination of neural and glandular mechanisms III. REPRODUCTIVE FEEDBACK LOOPS: HORMONES = CHEMICAL MESSAGES FROM NEURONS OR GLANDS THAT INFLUENCE TARGET ORGANS a. Gonadotropins b. Steroids : _____________ ________________ c. Ex: Ring dove cycle (Daniel Lehrman, Rae Silver, Mei Cheng) Phase I (2 days): Photoperiod + nest material --> Phase II (1 week): Nest building --> gonadotropins down, female courtship down males remain responsive to females Phase III (2 weeks): Incubation --> Phase IV (3.5 weeks): Hatching --> Back to Phase I REPRODUCTIVE FEEDBACK LOOPS Ringneck D o v e 3 RINGNECK D OVE C YCLE PHASE I (2 days) Photoperiod + nest material hypothalamus gonadotropins steroids courtship Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 4 Phase 3 Hormonal c ycle I PHASE I (2 days) Photoperiod + nest material hypothalamus gonadotropins steroids courtship PHASE II (1week) Nest construction rising female progesterone egg laying Hormonal c ycle II PHASE I (2 days) Photoperiod + nest material hypothalamus gonadotropins steroids courtship PHASE II (1week) Nest construction rising female progesterone egg laying PHASE III (2 weeks) Incubation PROLACTIN crop develops, gonadotropins down 4 Hormonal c ycle III PHASE I (2 days) Photoperiod + nest material hypothalamus gonadotropins steroids courtship PHASE II (1week) Nest construction rising female progesterone egg laying PHASE III (2 weeks) Incubation PROLACTIN crop develops, gonadotropins down PHASE IV (3.5 weeks) Hatching chicks mature prolactin down gonadotropins up Phase I Hormonal c ycle IV d. Main theme: Each behavior sets off endocrine or other motivational changes that alters receptivity to ______________________________________ subsequent stimuli e. Experimental evidence: 1. 2. 3. Nest building and incubation Female steroid hormones Incubation and prolactin SUMMARY SENSORY S TIMULI N EURAL & ENDOCRINE M ECHANISMS BEHAVIOR The endocrine regulation of reproduction is remarkably consistent in many vertebrates, from fish to mammals. 5 ETHOGRAM = a record of behavioral activities Anolis c arolinensis (Hurnik et al., 1995) ETHOGRAM Motion patterns in anole headbob displays (fleishman 1992) Normal: females & 1 male Only females castrated male added (same as no male) one male added CASTRATED MALE ADDED multiple males added: fighting 6 IV. EFFECTS OF SOCIAL STIMULI ON REPRODUCTIVE BIOLOGY: a. Example 1: Anolis carolinensis (David Crews) Ethogram of reproductive displays Female vitellogenins (egg yolk precursor) b. Example 2: Male plainfin midshipman fish (Andrew H. Bass, Cornell) Type II "sneaky" males LET’S REVIEW FF : 80% FF + 1 M : 100% FF + >1 M : 30% ARE HORMONES INVOLVED? FF + (castrated M + cholesterol) : 80% FF + (castrated M + testosterone) : 100% Differences in levels of circulating hormones Central pattern generator Circuitry the same, but …. Proportion of Type II males determined by …. Songs o f t he m ale plainfin m idshipman f ish Nest hum Attract females Andy B ass, C ornell fighting parents & sneakers Grunt train Growl 7 TYPE I I MALE G ONADS TYPE I types a re i rreversible Male plain fin midshipman fish Andrew H. Bass, Cornell Central p attern generator Sexually polymorphic traits circulating steroids Type I male Testosterone & 11ketotestosterone Type II male only testosterone BIOCYTIN STAINING Male p lain f in midshipman f ish Circuitry the same, but r ate o f firing a nd s ize o f n eurons different i n d ifferent m ale types (I v s. II) Proportion of Type II males determined by p opulation density 8 Male plain fin midshipman fish Andrew H. Bass, Cornell Sexually polymorphic traits nest building , egg guarding Type I male yes Type II male no Male plain fin midshipman fish Andrew H. Bass, Cornell Sexually polymorphic traits nest building , egg guarding body size Type I male yes large Type II male no small Male plain fin midshipman fish Andrew H. Bass, Cornell Sexually polymorphic traits nest building , egg guarding body size circulating steroids Type I male yes large Testosterone & 11ketotestosterone Type II male no small only testosterone Male plain fin midshipman fish Andrew H. Bass, Cornell Sexually polymorphic traits nest building , egg guarding body size circulating steroids vocal behavior Type I male yes large Testosterone & 11ketotestosterone hums, grunts Type II male no small only testosterone grunts Male plain fin midshipman fish Andrew H. Bass, Cornell Sexually polymorphic traits nest building , egg guarding body size circulating steroids vocal behavior vocal muscle Type I male yes large Testosterone & 11ketotestosterone hums, grunts large Type II male no small only testosterone grunts small Male plain fin midshipman fish Andrew H. Bass, Cornell Sexually polymorphic traits nest building , egg guarding body size circulating steroids vocal behavior vocal muscle vocal neurons Type I male yes large Testosterone & 11ketotestosterone hums, grunts large large Type II male no small only testosterone grunts small small 9 Male plain fin midshipman fish Andrew H. Bass, Cornell Sexually polymorphic traits nest building , egg guarding body size circulating steroids vocal behavior vocal muscle vocal neurons vocal discharge frequency Type I male yes large Testosterone & 11ketotestosterone hums, grunts large large high Type II male no small only testosterone grunts small small low V. FIELD BEHAVIORAL ENDOCRINOLOGY Example: spiny lizards, Sceloporus jarrovi (Michael Moore) Castration decreased but did not eliminate some reproductive, territorial behaviors Castrated males still occupied territories Red-sided garter snake VI. HORMONES, BEHAVIOR AND LIFE HISTORIES David Crews Associated reproductive patterns vs . disassociated reproductive patterns = mating does not coincide with peak gonadal activity Example: Red-sided garter snake limestone hibernacula (caves): spring breeding Disassociated reproductive pattern VI. HORMONES, BEHAVIOR AND LIFE HISTORIES David Crews Associated reproductive patterns vs . disassociated reproductive patterns = mating does not coincide with peak gonadal activity Example: Red-sided garter snake limestone hibernacula (caves): spring breeding Summer (after spring b male gonadal activity peak in ____________________ reeding)! neural activation of reproductive behavior Reproductive cycle of the male garter snake breeding males use sperm produced during the previous year! 10 SUMMARY 1) HORMONAL CONTROL OF BEHAVIORS Hypothalamus & Pituitary 2) REPRODUCTIVE FEEDBACK LOOPS Ringneck dove 2) EFFECT OF SOCIAL STIMULATION Plainfin midshipman, spiny lizards 11 ...
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