june 4 - Outline Evidence of climate change Aerosol impacts...

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Outline Evidence of climate change Aerosol impacts Direct effect Indirect effect Uncertainties Global temp. and precip. Patterns Natural and anthropogenic effects When and where should we stabilize CO 2 and other GHG? Solutions Energy efficiency! Renewable energies
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Data from Vostok Ice Core 400 ppm 500 ppm (by 2100) 386 ppm CO 2 and CH 4 concentrations over past 450,000 years Depending on reduction strategies—could get as high as 1000 ppm! Now
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Ice Core Data Ice Core Data CO CO 2 Measurements Before 1958 Measurements Before 1958 - Antarctica Antarctica
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Scientists agree that higher CO 2 levels are from humans a) CO 2 levels began to rise when we starting producing it in earnest (~1850) b) its isotopic signature demonstrates it comes predominantly from fossil fuel combustion (unique fingerprint) c) such an increase has not happened in at least 800,000 years IPCC report received Nobel Peace Prize w/ Al Gore in 2007
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Temperature and Carbon Dioxide Rising Together
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Scattering (Cooling) Absorption (Atmospheric Warming) Absorbed by surface of earth Cloud Seeding (Cooling) Suppression of rain; increase cloud lifetime (Cooling) Solar (UV/vis) Absorption IR Direct Effect Indirect Effect Aerosol: Climate impacts
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Climate Change (Aerosol Mixing State)
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Direct Effect of Aerosols Scattering of solar radiation Absorption of solar radiation Absorption of long wavelength IR Whether particle has warming or cooling effect depends on composition Soot = absorbs incoming solar rad. = warming Sulfate = reflective = cooling Soot + sulfate More warming—why?
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Indirect effect Clouds Particles can act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN)—depends on composition Changes # concentration of droplets in clouds and size distribution which alters precipitation rate Polluted regions – suppressed rainfall Clouds can scatter (incoming) or absorb (outgoing) light (overall effect depends on height)
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Indirect Effect Ship Tracks CA
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Industry CCN Oxidation, Nucleation Soil dust saltation CCN Water cloud Indirect Effects of Aerosols on the Hydrological Cycle? Aerosol
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This note was uploaded on 10/28/2010 for the course CHEM 173 taught by Professor Dr.dancziczo during the Spring '10 term at UC Riverside.

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june 4 - Outline Evidence of climate change Aerosol impacts...

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