Lec2 - Aggregation of Non-Polar Molecules in Water...

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dipole-dipole interactions
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Structure of Water
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Water is Polar --forms H-bonds --interacts well with charged particles --weakens polar and ionic interactions --interacts poorly with non-polar substances (hydrophobic effect)
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Water forms hydrogen bonds with itself
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Ice is a crystal of H-bonded H 2 O 4 H-bonds per H 2 O In liquid water this structure is broken down — 15% less hydrogen bonds
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Hydrogen Bonds
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Water as a solvent Good solvent for polar or ionic substances (hydrophilic) Poor solvent for non-charged/non-polar substances (hydrophobic)
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Water interacts well with charged particles
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Water weakens interactions between charged or polar groups ionic interactions dipole-dipole interaction flexibility reversibility
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Hydrophobic Effect Water molecules build a structured cage around non-polar substances Decrease in entropy Tendency of water to minimize contact with non-polar substances
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Molecules with both polar and non-polar regions (amphiphilic or amphipathic) Form micelles or bilayers Amphipathic Molecules
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Micelles and Bilayers
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Unformatted text preview: Aggregation of Non-Polar Molecules in Water Hydrophobic Effect Membrane structure Protein structure Lipid-protein interactions Protein-protein interactions Osmosis Colligative properties determined by the total concentration of solutes Osmosis movement of water through a semipermeable membrane from high to low concentration Osmotic pressure the pressure that must be applied to prevent water from flowing in Osmotic pressure Dialysis Proton Jump Ionization of Water In pure water [H + ] = [OH-]= 10-7 M [H + ] >10 -7 M: acidic pH = -log [H + ] [H + ] < 10 -7 M : basic pOH = -log [OH-] K w = [H + ] x [OH-] = 10-14 M 2 pH + pOH = 14 Acid-Base Chemistry An acid can donate a proton A base can absorb a proton Conjugated base Conjugated acid HA + H 2 O H 3 O + + A-Strength of an acid refers to its tendency to dissociate Relationship between pH, H + and OH-in Water...
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Lec2 - Aggregation of Non-Polar Molecules in Water...

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