Lecture 4 2010 handout sheet

Lecture 4 2010 handout sheet - Summary of Lecture 05-13-10...

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Unformatted text preview: Summary of Lecture 05-13-10 Fertilization in sea urchins: • Fast block to polyspermy (increase in membrane potential) potential) • Slow block to polyspermy (release of the cortical granules contents) contents) Fertilization in humans: • No fast block to polyspermy -- instead a complex series of integuments that need to be traversed by the sperm to reach the egg. reach • They have slow block to polyspermy They In amphibians we defined: • Gastrulation and Neurulation Gastrulation • Blastopore Blastopore • Epiboly Epiboly 2 Announcements Dr. MM-G’s office hours: • Tu 3:30 - 4:30 in my office room 2117 BSB • Th 6:30-7:30 in room 1103 BSB • Grades for midterm posted in the grade center • Key for the midterm posted in ilearn • If you are not happy with the grading please consult the key first, and then if are still not happy please write a rebuttal to the grading and then handed it to me. This needs to be done within a week from today. 2 • New handout sheet for the the paper write X enopus: Neural tube Xenopus: formation formation • The neural tube forms from neural plate, a region of thickened ectoderm induced by the mesoderm. • In amphibians, the neural folds arise via elevation of the edges of the neural plate which fuse to form the neural tube which then separate from the adjacent ectoderm (which becomes epidermis). • The neural groove is the 2 Fig. 7.34 Fig. Neural Tube Development During Xenopus neuralation, cells at the edge of the neural plate undergo apical constriction (become wedge-shaped) which draws the edges into folds. The constriction is dependent on actin but not only on actin because when the tubes are treated with Cytochalasin B, which blocks actin polymerization dynamics, neurulation in amphibian still proceeds. It is now known that constriction is driven by an actin-binding protein called Shroom Fig. 2 Fig. 7.35 Outline for lecture 05/13 – 25/10 2. Gastrulation and Neurulation • Amphibians: Frog • Avians: Chicken Chicken • M ammalians: M ouse • M ammalians: Human H uman 2 Stage of Development of the Hen’s Stage Egg at the Time of Laying Egg Blastoderm or Blastoderm Blastodisc: Blastodisc Stage of embryonic development in which the embryo consists of layer of cells rather than a ball of cells Fig. 2 3.12 Life Cycle of the Chicken Fig. 3.132 Cleavage in Chickens Fig. 2 3.14 F ormation of the Epiblast in Formation Chickens Chickens Fig. 2 3.14 F ormation of the Primitive Formation Streak in Chickens Streak Fig. 2 3.14 I ngression of Cells During Gastrulation in the Chick Gastrulation Anterior Fig. 2 3.15 Regression of the Hensen’s Node Node Fig. 2 3.16 H ead Fold and Notochord Head Formation in Chicks F ormation 2 Regression of the Hensen’s Node Node http://www.gastrulation.org/ http://pr.caltech.edu/events/kulesa/ Fig. 2 3.16 Development of the Neural Tube and Development Mesoderm in the Chick M esoderm Fig. 3.18 Fig. 3.17 2 Change in Cell Shape During Change Neurulation in Chicks Neurulation Fig. 7.36 2 Martins-Green, Development 1988 1988 2 Martins-Green et al., Development 1988 2 Development of the Neural Tube Development in the Chick in 2 F urther Development of the Further Chick Embryo Chick Fig. 2 3.19 Fig. 3.20 Extraembryonic Membranes in Extraembryonic the Chick the 2 Pictures of CAMs studies IL-8 Normal CAM Angiogenic factor Angiogenic factor + 2 inhibitor of this factor Explain how studies were done in chick embryos • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pLkW7R • http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=Cdbf4bTqvgg&NR=1 2 Exam on the 10th of June, 11:302:30, here in this room Types of questions: 1. Those that test for factual information 2. Those that test for being able to put concept together 3. Those that test your ability to interpret and develop experiments 2 ...
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