Unformatted text preview: Summary of Lecture 05-18-10
We talked about neurulation in amphibians and We gastrulation and neurulation in avians. gastrulation We defined:
• Zona Pellucida Zona • • • • • Epiblast and Hypoblast Epiblast Hensen’s node Hensen’s Primitive streak Primitive Ingression Ingression Notochord Notochord 2 Outline for lecture 05/13 – 25/10
2. Gastrulation and Neurulation
• Amphibians: Frog • Avians: Chicken Chicken • Mammalians: Human Human • Mammalians: Mouse Mouse
2 Development of the Preimplantion Blastocysts in Human 2 Human Development 2 Human Development 2 Development of Human Development Embryonic Tissues Embryonic 2 Development of Human Development Embryonic Tissues Embryonic 2 Development of Human Development Embryonic Tissues Embryonic 2 Development of Development Human Embryonic Tissues Tissues Extraembryonic Extraembryonic Embryonic tissues tissues tissues 2 Sierra May on 2/06 arm head 2 Sierra May on 04/01/07 2 Movie 2 Life Cycle of the Mouse Fig. 3.21 2 Preimplantation in Mice 2 Cleavage in the mouse embryo 2 Fig. 3.22/23 Early Post-Implantation Early Development of the Mouse Embryo Embryo 2 Fig. 2.22 Early Post-Implantation Early Development of the Mouse Embryo Embryo 2 Fig. 2.22 Early Post-Implantation Early Development of the Mouse Embryo Embryo 2 Fig. 2.22 Early Post-Implantation Early Development of the Mouse Embryo Embryo 2 Fig. 3.23 Early Post-Implantation Early Development of the Mouse Embryo Embryo 2 Fig. 3.22/3.13 Gastrulation in the Mouse Gastrulation Embryo Embryo 2 Fig. 3.24 Gastrulation in the Mouse Gastrulation Embryo Embryo 2 Fig. 3.24 Gastrulation to Neurulation 2 Equivalent to Fig. 3.25 Turning in the Mouse Embryo Fig. 3.26 2 Phylotypic Stage of Vertebrate Embryos
Phylotypic Phylotypic Stage: A Stage stage in which the embryos of different vertebrate groups resemble each other Fig. 3.2 Fig. 2 Questions?
• How about humans? Do they go through a Phylotypic stage ? Yes • Is development identical to that of mice? It is similar but not identical 2 Stem Cell Biology
1. Definition 2. Types of stem cells
• Embryonic stem cells • Fetal or Germline stem cells • Adult stem cells 3. Use of genetically modified stem cells in experimental gene therapy
Stem Cells are:
Self-renewing, unspecialized cells that can give rise to cells with specialized functions. This process is called differentiation Therefore stem cells are unique because they are uncommitted, they can self-renewal and remain so until they receive a signal to specialize 2 Embryonic Stem Cells
Stem cells that come from the embryo. More specifically they come from the inner cell mass (ICM) mass Blatocyst Therefore they are said to be pluripotent pluripotent that is they can generate just about any cell type in the body
2 Technique Technique for Generating ES Cell Cultures Cultures 2 Establish ES Cells
They can be used to differentiate into many different cell types. For example: • Insulin producing cells • Heart muscle cells • Neurons 2 Types of question on the exam from Dr. MM-G’s material
1. Basic knowledge of facts 2. Ability to put concepts together and relate processes occurring during development 3. Ability to solve a problem, design an experiment or interpret an experiment
2 ES Cells ES and Diabetes Diabetes 2 Preparing Preparing Insulin Producing Cells from ES Cells Cells
2 Fetal or Germline stem cells
Cells derived from the gonadal ridges that form during development. These cells later in life give rise to the gonades and to the sperm and eggs progenitor cells. They are called primordial germ cells They are also pluripotent but they do not divide indefinitely. They are very difficult to isolate and there are very few cells in any one embryo. 2 Primordial Germ Cells 2 Adult Stem Cell
Undifferentiated (unspecialized) cells that occur in a differentiated (specialized) tissue. These cells become specialized when exposed to specific signals in the tissue to give rise to differentiated cells of that tissue. They have been discovered in virtually all tissues of the body including in the various tissues of the brain. 2 Adult Stem Cell
Are adult cells plastic?
Plasticity: the ability of the stem cells from a tissue to give rise to differentiated cells from another tissue. Yes. The more we learn the more we Yes. find out that adult stem cells are plastic.
2 Plasticity of Plasticity Adult Stem Cells Cells 2 Plasticity of Adult Stem Cells 2 Hematopoietic Stem Cells
These are the only adult stem cells that are in clinical trials today because they are: today 1. Self-renewing 2. Readily removable from the body (circulating cells and umbilical vein blood) 3. Many marker available to identify these stem cells and pull them out of a population of cells 4. They can home into several organs so they can be administered into circulation. 5. Can be isolated from the person being treated enriched and then put back in circulation. 2 Sorting Cells Sorting to Isolate Adult Stem Cells from the Bone Marrow Marrow
2 Summary of Lecture #26
1. We discussed gastrulation in humans 1. Types of stem cells
• Embryonic stem cells are derived form the ICM • Fetal or Germline stem cells are derived from the gonadal ridges of early embryos • Adult stem cells exist in all tissues 2 Summary of Lecture #26
1. We discussed gastrulation in humans 1. Types of stem cells • Embryonic stem cells are derived form the ICM • Fetal or Germline stem cells are derived from the gonadal ridges • Adult stem cells exist in all tissues
3. Use of genetically modified stem cells in experimental gene therapy
2 Strategies for Delivering Therapeutics into Patients 2 Major Goals in the Development of Transplantation Therapeutics from Human ES Cell Lines Human
2 2 ...
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This note was uploaded on 10/31/2010 for the course CBNS 108 taught by Professor Green,demason during the Spring '10 term at UC Riverside.
- Spring '10