116 Lecture 2.S10

116 Lecture 2.S10 - CBNS 116 Lecture 2 Overall organization...

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CBNS 116 Lecture 2 - Overall organization of the Nervous System and Functional Overview ASSIGNMENT: In Nolte read Chapter 3: “Gross Anatomy and General Organization of the Nervous System” pp. 53-78. FOR NEXT LECTURE: Read Nolte Chapter 1: “Introduction to the Nervous System”. This will be review for many of you, but the Electron Micrographs will be new. Be sure to be able to identify the structures in the EMs. TODAY'S LECTURE: The big picture: Chapter 3 provides a very nice overview (and preview) of many of the important brain structures that will be covered in greater detail in subsequent lectures. While some of this will be review for many of you, the more you understand from Chapter 3, the easier it will be to understand subsequent material. This is a great opportunity to become comfortable with terminology that will be used over and over again throughout the course. The “Language of Neuroanatomy” handout should be particularly helpful at this stage. As you become comfortable in the identification of structures, if you have a question about function of a particular structure, the glossary of the Nolte book is comprehensive. I. Major subdivisions of the human nervous system. Many of these subdivisions are also outlined in the “Language of Neuroanatomy” handout. A. [Lecture Images part 1 slide 4]. The human nervous system consists of the Central Nervous System (CNS) and the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS). The CNS is comprised of the brain and spinal cord. The PNS includes the cranial nerves and ganglia, the spinal nerves and dorsal root ganglia, the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves and ganglia, and the enteric nervous system, the plexuses of nerves that control the smooth muscle for gut motility. B. [Lecture Images part 1 slide 5]. There are certain terms that refer to the primary subdivisions of the brain during development. It is important that you understand this terminology and what structures these subdivisions give rise to. During the fourth week of gestation three bulges become apparent along the Neural Tube, the developing brain. These bulges are called the prosencephalon (forebrain), the mesencephalon (midbrain), and rhombencephalon (hindbrain). The prosencephalon will give rise to the telencephalon (cerebral hemispheres) and diencephalon ( thalamus and
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hypothalamus ). The mesencephalon gives rise to the midbrain, the upper third of the brainstem. The rhombencephalon will become the cerebellum (“little brain”), and the pons and medulla , the remaining two-thirds of the brainstem. II. Subdivisions of the brain A. The brain consists of: 1) the brainstem , 2) the cerebellum, and 3) the cerebrum . The brainstem serves as the control center for cranial nerves III-XII and also serves important functions including regulation of consciousness and arousal, modulatory neurotransmitter control systems, and control of respiration. You might think of the brainstem as the “heart” of the brain. The cerebellum is involved in motor coordination and motor reflexes as well as
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This note was uploaded on 10/31/2010 for the course CBNS 116 taught by Professor Todda.fiacco during the Spring '10 term at UC Riverside.

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116 Lecture 2.S10 - CBNS 116 Lecture 2 Overall organization...

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