116 Lecture 4.S10

116 Lecture 4.S10 - CBNS 116 Lecture 4 Introduction to...

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CBNS 116 Lecture 4 - Introduction to brain imaging, meninges, blood supply to and from the brain, the blood-brain barrier, hematoma, and stroke ASSIGNMENT: Read Nolte Chapters 4 & 6, “Meningeal coverings of the brain and spinal cord” and “Blood supply of the brain”. Also read pp. 110-117 in Nolte for an introduction to brain imaging techniques commonly used in the clinic. FOR NEXT LECTURE: Read Nolte Chapter 5: “Ventricles and cerebrospinal fluid”, and begin reading Chapter 10: “Spinal cord”. Chapter 5 is short so I recommend reading ahead. TODAY'S LECTURE: The big picture: Having an understanding of the blood supply to and from the brain is essential to understanding clinical aspects of neuroanatomy. Much of what has been learned about anatomical function of different brain structures has been determined from observing deficits stemming from specific lesions (a general term referring to damage to a particular brain structure). A primary source of lesions in humans comes from cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs), including stroke (block of vessels) and hemorrhage (rupture of vessels), which interfere with oxygen and glucose supply of the brain leading to ischemia (cell death) as well as increased intracranial pressure which is in itself very dangerous and causes a number of telltale symptoms and potential side effects. The type and magnitude of the deficit stems from the particular artery affected and the structures it supplies. Study of the meninges is useful in the context of blood supply, as cerebrovasculature is closely associated with them. Finally, included in this lecture is an introduction to brain imaging , including X-ray, CT, MRI, and diffusion tensor imaging. This will be introduced first, as imaging data are included in this and just about all subsequent material. Each of us has probably had to have one or more of these types of scans, which have provided a noninvasive means for diagnosing various CNS abnormalities. I. Introduction to brain imaging [slides 53 - 61]. A. X-ray [slide 53]. One of the first imaging techniques used, very limited because: 1) Bones, which are x-ray dense, block a lot of transmission (and appear light on the film). Different parts of the brain cannot be distinguished from one another. 2) Images are collapsed onto a single plane. B. X-ray pneumoencephalogram [slide 54]. Modified x-ray technique in which air is
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introduced into ventricular space. Air has a very low x-ray density so the shape of the ventricles can be visualized. Pneumoencephalography is painful and no longer used. C. Computed tomography ( CT ) [slide 55]. Tomography means “constructing pictures of slices”, in this case done by a computer. X-ray density at specific points of intersection of rotating x-ray emitters and detectors is calculated, and varies as the x-ray emitters and detectors are shifted to adjacent points of intersection (depending on the density of that particular point). The big advantage provided by CT is that CSF, gray matter, white
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  • Spring '10
  • ToddA.Fiacco
  • Internal carotid artery, Common carotid artery, Arteries of the head and neck, Dural venous sinuses, cerebral veins

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116 Lecture 4.S10 - CBNS 116 Lecture 4 Introduction to...

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