116 Lecture 16.S10

116 Lecture 16.S10 - CBNS 116 Lecture 16 the Cerebellum...

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CBNS 116 Lecture 16 - the Cerebellum Lecture notes by Todd Fiacco ASSIGNMENT: Read Nolte Chapter 20: “Cerebellum”. FOR NEXT LECTURE: Read Nolte Chapter 22: “Cerebral Cortex”. TODAY'S LECTURE: The big picture: “Cerebellum” is Greek for “little brain”. It is the little brain tethered to the back of the brainstem by its 3 fiber bundles, the inferior, middle, and superior cerebellar peduncles. Although the cerebellum is small in size (about 10% of the brain mass), it contains as many neurons as the rest of the CNS combined ! The main function associated with the cerebellum is coordination of movements. In mammals that rely heavily on coordination of movements for survival, such as mountain goats or bighorn sheep, the cerebellum comprises a much greater percentage of the brain mass. Much of cerebellar function occurs subconsciously, as the cerebellum receives proprioceptive information via the spinocerebellar pathways and vestibular information via the vestibulocerebellar tracts to coordinate postural and equilibratory reflexes and in the execution of smooth, coordinated movements. The cerebellum is also important for motor memory : the fine tuning of learned, highly coordinated voluntary motor outputs over time (perfecting soccer, pitching a baseball, playing the piano etc.). The cerebellum affects movement on the ipsilateral side of the body , since, SCP cerebellar outputs cross in the midbrain while the corticospinal tract re-crosses at the pyramidal decussation. It is becoming increasingly apparent that, like the basal ganglia, the cerebellum is also involved in cognition, not just coordination of movements. Like the hippocampus, the cerebellum has a very highly organized cortex and connections which has made it one of the most heavily studied regions of the brain in neuroscience research. Amazingly, how the cerebellum functions remains poorly understood overall. I. Gross anatomy and functional organization of the cerebellum A. Surface anatomy of the cerebellum [slides 98-102]. The surface of the cerebellum is
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divided into a number of folia by many deep fissures. The folia and fissures of the cerebellum are analogous to the gyri and sulci of cerebral cortex. Like the brain, the cerebellum can be divided into a number of lobes: 1) An anterior lobe and a posterior lobe , separated by the deep primary fissure (best seen in slides 98 and in the mid-sagittal view, 102). 2) A midline vermis (Latin for “worm”). The vermis is the part of the cerebellum that is seen in the mid-sagittal view. 3) The flocculonodular lobe (FNL), comprised of the lateral flocculus (best seen in slides 101, front view, and 102) and a medial nodulus , best seen in the mid- sagittal view as cerebellar lobule X. The nodulus is thus the most anteroinferior portion of the vermis. 4) The
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116 Lecture 16.S10 - CBNS 116 Lecture 16 the Cerebellum...

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