116 Lecture 17.S10

116 Lecture 17.S10 - CBNS 116 Lecture 17 - Cerebral Cortex...

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CBNS 116 Lecture 17 - Cerebral Cortex Lecture notes by Todd Fiacco ASSIGNMENT: Read Nolte Chapter 22: “Cerebral Cortex”. FOR NEXT LECTURE: That’s it! No more assignments. Next lecture (18) will be a review for the final; come prepared with questions or any specific things that are unclear and that you would like to go over again. TODAY'S LECTURE: The big picture: Now, finally, we come full circle to reach the final destination of sensory information processing in the CNS - the cerebral cortex . The vast majority of cerebral cortex (about 95%) in humans is neocortex , which is made up of primary and secondary sensory processing areas as well as multimodal association cortex where multiple modalities come together. In primates and especially in humans, most cerebral cortex has evolved into multimodal association cortex which spans prefrontal cortex , as well as much of the area of the parietal , occipital , and temporal lobes . It is this great expanse of association cortex that is thought to underlie the unique cognitive abilities of humans, including abstract thought and the use of language. Of course, not all cortex is involved in processing of sensory information. Sensory information is processed and integrated ultimately to make decisions about how to act on this information - this forms the basis for behavior . In addition to the processing of sensory information, the cerebral cortex receives information from the hypothalamus as strong urges or desires, as well as from the limbic system to modify our actions and behavior according to our own emotional needs as well as our compassion for the emotions of others. Voluntary decisions are made regarding a course of action which is funneled through motor areas including premotor and supplementary motor areas and somatosensory areas into primary motor cortex (with assistance from the basal ganglia and cerebellum ) to reach the lower motor neurons of the anterior horn of the spinal cord to affect movement. Another example of an outcome following processing of sensory, hypothalamic and limbic information may include corticobulbar fibers reaching the facial motor nucleus to move the muscles of facial expression and to the motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (nucleus ambiguus ) to control motor language by innervation of the larynx.
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I. Development of neocortex [slide 125]. The great expansion of neocortex during development forced “older” cortices called paleocortex and archicortex (limbic cortex) onto the inferior and medial surfaces of the brain ( neo meaning “new”, referring to the appearance of this type of cortex fairly late in vertebrate evolution). Neocortex itself expands outward in a “C” shape, dragging other deep structures along with it (the several C-shaped structures of the brain). The older cortices have been discussed in conjunction with the limbic system and therefore, the main focus of this lecture will be on neocortex. II. Review of the major anatomical divisions of cerebral cortex
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This note was uploaded on 10/31/2010 for the course CBNS 116 taught by Professor Todda.fiacco during the Spring '10 term at UC Riverside.

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116 Lecture 17.S10 - CBNS 116 Lecture 17 - Cerebral Cortex...

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