Lecture 1Nourish: to satisfy the need of the body in order to function, grow, stay healthy.Nutrients: something that nourishes body that helps body to function, grow.I.Known nutrientsa.Macronutrients-capable of providing energyi.Carbohydratesii.Proteiniii.Lipidsiv.fatsb.Micronutrients –consumed in relatively small amount, does not produceenergy but need the function of micronutrients in order to make use ofmacronutrientsi.Vitaminsii.Mineralsc.WaterII.Suspected nutrientsa.Phytochemicals-chemicals found in plants (phyto = plants) that may havesome effects on our body.i.Caffeine (from coffee bean)ii.Ginko bilobaiii.Ginsengb.Probioticsfoods or supplements that contain and provide beneficial bacteriaor yeasts.c.Prebioticschemicals that promote the growth of beneficial gut bacteria.
III.Unknown nutrientsVariety = protein can be obtained from beans or meat.Balance = diet that restriction the intake of carbohydrates.Moderation = serving size(Exercise)calorie –amount of energy required to raise temperature of 1 gram of water by 1°CCalorie –kilocalorie – amount of energy required to raise temperature of 1000 gram of water by1°CDigestionDigestion:process of breaking foods down into smaller units. Both physical (cutting, choppingfood) and biochemical.Absorption:transfer/movements of nutrients into cellsGI tract(single tube from mouth to anus)I.MouthII.EsophagusIII.Stomachhighly muscular, not tubular, many glands, extremely acidicIV.Small intestine – duodenum (10 inch)-Jejunum (4 ft)-Iteum (5 ft)V.Large intestineVI.Rectum and anusSphinctors –a value or muscular ring found in various intersection of GI tract.Accessory organs (aids the process of digestion)– liver
-Pancreas(gallbladder and bile duct (storage))
Lecture 11LipidDietary lipid– directly absorbed from intestine through lacteal and lymphatic pathway, alwayspackaged as chylomicrons.Vldlshort and medium chain fatty acidProtein 28:30Protein energy malnutrition (PEM)Protein and energy can be linked in odd ways.Protein is made of chains of amino acids known as polypeptides. Primary, secondary, tertiary,quaternary structures.20 amino acids total.High quality or complete protein– proteins that have as close to the full complement ofessential AA as possible.Food that contain all 20 AA are classified as high quality protein. Mostanimal proteins are complete/high quality.** source of protein that contains an adequate proportion of all the essential amino acids for thedietary needs of humans or other animals.Incomplete protein –does not contain all AA.Biological value –there is a very good conversion of dietary protein into biological protein.Biological protein = any protein in any part of body (enzyme, hormone, muscle, etc.). The rate atwhich dietary protein is broken down and converted to something else in the body is very good.