Lecture1A

Lecture1A - Perception: vision, audition Control of...

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Unformatted text preview: Perception: vision, audition Control of muscular system Higher brain function: learning & memory General framework for study of systems neurobiology Neuron & glia: 2 types of brain cells Definition A complete neural circuit involves sensory neurons that convert an internal or external sensory stimulus into neural signals, which are then evaluated for their level of importance & then integrated w/ other neural signals from additional sensory neurons. Most of the processing within the brain is performed by groups of cells called interneurons, which then go on to activate motor neurons which induce activation of muscles & production of behavior. Therere some points of feedback between various levels. Primary division between CNS and PNS. CNS (composed of brain + spinal cord) primary function is analysis & integration of sensory information and execution of motor neurons. PNS composed of cranial nerves & spinal nerves, which relay sensory information from internal/external environment that gets relayed to CNS, then relays the motor commands from CNS to muscles & glands. Various spinal nerves that migrate to specific parts of body & major structures of brain. Spinal cord mediates reflexes, relays sensory information to CNS and motor information to PNS. Cerebrum (cerebral cortex) process sensory information (somatic sensation, vision, hearing). Thalamus structure within diencephalon that acts as a relay station between periphery & cerebrum. Cerebellum involved in muscle coordination. Unlike other organ systems of body, nervous system is made up of a wide variety of cell types. Main division: neurons & glia cells. Neurons signaling units of nervous system. Therere many different types of morphologies for neurons. The most typical morphology is exhibited by renal ganglion cell where it has branching of dendrites that receive information from other neurons. This information gets funneled to cell body/soma and relayed through axon. Morphology is a reflection of function of neurons. o Ex. retinal bipolar cell receives inputs from one or small number of photoreceptors and outputs to a single retinal ganglion cell. This level of specificity ensures the relay of visual information has a high level of spatial acuity. o Ex. Cerebellar Purkinje cell has many dendritic branches which integrates inputs from thousands of other cells in cerebellum in an effort to coordinate complex motor movements. Glia cells that play a supporting role to neurons. o Myelin substance that electrically insulates axons of neurons o Supply nutrients to neurons & removal of waste such as excess neurotransmitter to clear it away from external space between neurons....
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This note was uploaded on 10/28/2010 for the course BIPN 144 taught by Professor Jin during the Spring '08 term at UCSD.

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Lecture1A - Perception: vision, audition Control of...

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