Review.1

# Review.1 - Cardiovascular Cardiac Output the blood ejected...

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Cardiovascular Cardiac Output: the blood ejected per minute Heart Rate: HR, number times the heart times contracts per minute Stroke Volume: SV, amount of blood ejected by the ventricle per contraction Normal avg. 5L/min cardiac output and same for trained endurance. Max exercise: Untrained Q=16-18L/min vs Trained endurance: 30-40L/min. Main difference = is stroke volume almost a 100% higher. Cardiac Output Formula := HR x SV HR as % of Max Simple: 220-age+or-10 S.T For 20 year old: 200X.70 exercise=140b/min Karvonen THQ = (max HR – RHR) X Int. % + RHR True Max VO2 – over estimates true value Karvonen – brigs it closer to reality Given that 30yrs, RHR=70b/min, Int.=60%. Simple=190x.60=114 . Karvonen: 190-70=120. 120x.60+70, 72+70=142 Blood Pressure P = Flow X Resistance affected by diameter + viscosity Systolic 90-145: hypertension exceeds the value Diastolic 40-85: Posture: supine on their back or prone lowest systolic Increased in standing position highest Inverted upside down Role of exercise: rhymic – bike rowing etc = blood pressure increases linearly and plateaus. One can assume that plateu is the maximum blood pressure systolic would be 240mm hg. Resistive in max lifts valsalva can exceed 300mm hg. Blood Distribution at Rest: muscle 40% large tissue area, abdominal 21-22% similar to kidney. Relative to blood supply to mass of tissue kidney gets highest amount. During max exercise: muscle all of the blood, abs none, kidney none. O2 Consumption Graph Y:Vo2 X: Time. A: o2 intake, B: O2 deficit, C: SS Vo2, D: Recovers Constant load of exercise: oxygen goes up and then reaches a plateu that plateu is the steady state of vo2. Some calculations. Oxyegn requirement is calculated by multiplying the steady state

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value by the number of minutes. 2 nd if you take the oxygen requirement and you subtract the oxygen consumed (the oxygen in take) that is the oxygen deficit. The oxygen deficit is quantitative (similar if the deficit is 2L the debt is 2L) and is related to the recovery value oxygen debt. No difference in steady state value between trained and untrained individuals doing the same amount of work, however, deficit is considered larger for an untrained subject and will have a longer recovery. Two subjects: arithmetic way:
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Review.1 - Cardiovascular Cardiac Output the blood ejected...

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