geneticsppt_chromosomestructure

geneticsppt_chromosomestructure - Problem: Measured...

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Problem: Measured linearly, the Escherichia coli genome (4.6 Mb) would be 1,000 times longer than the E. coli cell. The human genome (3.4 Gb) would be 2.3 m long if stretched linearly. Solutions: 1. Supercoiling DNA double helix is twisted in space about its own axis, a process is controlled by topoisomerases (enzymes). (can also occur in a linear DNA molecule) 2. Looped domains
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Eukaryotic chromosome structure Chromatin complex of DNA and chomosomal proteins ~ twice as much protein as DNA Two major types of proteins: 1. Histones abundant, basic proteins with a positive charge that bind to DNA 5 main types: H1, H2A, H2B, H3, H4 ~equal in mass to DNA evolutionarily conserved 2. Non-histones all the other proteins associated with DNA differ markedly in type and structure amounts vary widely >> 100% DNA mass << 50% DNA mass
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Packing of DNA into chromosomes: 1. Level 1 Winding of DNA around histones to create a nucleosome structure. 2. Level 2 Nucleosomes connected by strands of linker DNA like beads on a string.
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This note was uploaded on 10/29/2010 for the course MBG 210 taught by Professor Ozlenkonu during the Spring '10 term at Bilkent University.

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geneticsppt_chromosomestructure - Problem: Measured...

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