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Chapter02 - M I ND n A mysterious form of matter secreted...

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Click to edit Master subtitle style Psychology Lecture _02 MIND, n. A mysterious form of matter secreted by the brain. It’s chief activity consists in the endeavour to ascertain its own nature, the futility being due to the fact that it has nothing but itself to know itself with. Ambrose Bierce – The Devil’s Dictionary 11
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Click to edit Master subtitle style Psychology Lecture _02 2 2
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Psychology Lecture _02 33 “But couldn't everyone’s life become a work of art? Why should the lamp or the house be an art object, but not your life?”
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Click to edit Master subtitle style Psychology Lecture _02 Brain and Behaviour Chapter Two 44 Psychology Lecture _02
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Psychology Lecture _02 LEARNING OBJECTIVES Describe the structure of the Neuron Describe how the nerve cells communicate understand the roles of neurotransmitters Describe the organization of the nervous system Identify the major parts of the brain: L & R Identify each lobe of the cerebral cortex List behaviours controlled by the subcortex 55
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Psychology Lecture _02 Neuron and Its Parts Neuron: Individual nerve cell Soma: Cell body; body of the neuron (“body”) Dendrites: Receives messages from other neurons (“tree”) Axon: Carries information away from the cell body (“axle”) Axon Terminals : Branches that link the dendrites and soma of other neurons 66
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Psychology Lecture _02 Myelin Sheath Many axons are covered with a tube-like MYELIN SHEATH a fatty whitish insulation layer Allows electrical conduction to skip from node to node (~300 km/hour) Nodes of Ranvier intervals where the myelin sheath is either thin or absent. 77
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Psychology Lecture _02 Psychology Lecture _02 Figure 2.1 An example of a neuron , or nerve cell, showing several of its important features. The illustration shows a nerve cell fibre in cross section. The nerve impulse usually travels from the dendrites and soma to the branching ends of the axon. The neuron shown here is a motor neuron . Motor neurons originate in the brain or spinal cord and send their axons to the muscles or glands of the body. 88
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Psychology Lecture _02 The Neuron and Neural Impulse 99 click click click
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Psychology Lecture _02 1010
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Psychology Lecture _02 1111
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Psychology Lecture _02 Neural Communication Fluid inside & outside neurons Contain electrically charged ions Neurons “at rest” have a negative charge Stimulation causes cell membrane to open briefly Positively charged sodium ions flow in Shift in electrical charge travels along the neuron. 1212
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Psychology Lecture _02 Action Potential 1313
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Psychology Lecture _02 After the Action Potential 1414
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Psychology Lecture _02 Neural Impulse Actions 1515
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Psychology Lecture _02 Neural Networks Each neuron is sent ‘excitatory’ and ‘inhibitory’ signals from other neurons Excitatory signals bring the neuron closer to its threshold Inhibitory signals move the neuron away from its threshold 1616
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Psychology Lecture _02 Psychology Lecture _02 Neural Networks 1717
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Psychology Lecture _02 Action Potential and Neural Impulse Actions 1818 click
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Psychology Lecture _02 1919
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