Chapter06 - Click to edit Master subtitle style Chapter Six...

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Unformatted text preview: Click to edit Master subtitle style Chapter Six Conditioning and Learning Dr. Ronn Young-Intro to Psychology CLICK 22 Learning Objectives Define learning Define CS, UCS, CR and UCR Describe how classical conditioning occurs Explain stimulus generalization, stimulus discrimination, extinction and spontaneous recovery in classical conditioning Explain how emotional responses and phobias may be affected by classical conditioning Explain Operant Conditioning Define Shaping Distinguish between classical and operant conditioning 33 Learning Objectives Describe the four schedules of partial reinforcement and show how each affect behaviour Give examples of primary and secondary reinforces Explain Stimulus Control. Describe the effects of operant stimulus generalization and discrimination Explain punishment. Explain cognitive learning 44 55 66 What is Learning? Learning: Any relatively permanent change in behaviour resulting from experience. Does NOT include changes caused by motivation, fatigue, maturation, disease, injury, or drugs. Reinforcement: Any event that increases the probability that a response will occur. Response: Any identifiable behaviour Internal: Faster heartbeat Observable: Eating, scratching 77 What is Learning? Antecedents: Events that precede a response Consequences: Effects that follow a response 88 Classical Conditioning Reflex: An innate, automatic (non-learned) response to a stimulus (for example, an eye- blink) Classical Conditioning: A form of learning in which reflex responses are associated with new stimuli . 99 Operant Conditioning Operant Conditioning: Learning based on the consequences of the response. Response may be followed: by a reinforcer (such as food). or by punishment or by nothing. 1010 Remember the Behaviourists? Must study observable behaviour Knowledge is learned 1111 Any two sensory experiences that occur together will become associated with one another. 1212 For associations to form Contiguity: Associations are only formed when events occur together . Frequency: The more often two (or more) events occur together, the stronger the association will be. 1313 Ivan Pavlov Classical Conditioning Learning by associating environmental stimuli and behavioural responses Learning occurs when you recognize that one event 1414 Classical Conditioning and Russian physiologist who initially was studying digestion Used dogs to study salivation when dogs were presented with meat powder Also known as Pavlovian or Respondent Conditioning 1515 Figure 6.2 An apparatus for Pavlovian conditioning. A tube carries saliva from the dogs mouth to a lever that activates a recording device (far left). During conditioning, various stimuli can be paired with a dish of food placed in front of the dog. The device pictured here is more elaborate than the one Pavlov used in his early experiments....
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This note was uploaded on 11/01/2010 for the course PSYCHOLOGY Psyc1000 taught by Professor Ronnyoung during the Spring '10 term at UOIT.

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Chapter06 - Click to edit Master subtitle style Chapter Six...

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