1 - Social & Human Sciences Department (SAHSD) Centre...

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PHD 0015 Human Development ONLINE NOTES FOSEE , MULTIMEDIA UNIVERSITY (436821-T) MELAKA CAMPUS, JALAN AYER KEROH LAMA, 75450 MELAKA, MALAYSIA. Tel 606 252 3594 Fax 606 231 8799 URL: http://fosee.mmu.edu.my/~asd/ (SAHSD) Centre for Foundation Studies and Extension Education (FOSEE)
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PHD0015 HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Chapter 1 PHD 0015 Human Development Topic 1 The Study of Human Development Introduction (Refer textbook Chapter 1) 1. The field of human development is defined as the scientific study of processes in which people change, as well as of characteristics that remain fairly stable throughout life. 2. Its goals evolved to include description, explanation, prediction, and modification. 3. Developmental scientists are interested in two kinds of developmental change: quantitative and qualitative. 4. Change and stability occur in three domains or dimensions: physical development, cognitive development, and psychosocial development. Periods of the Life Span Prenatal period 1. The prenatal period includes the developmental processes from conception through birth, during which time, the human organism grows from a fertilized cell to billions of cells. 2. During this period, the basic body structure and organs are formed. Both heredity and environment influence the development. 3. During the early months, the organism is more vulnerable to negative environmental influences than during any other period of growth. Infancy 1. This period extends from childbirth through toddlerhood (birth to age three). 2. It is a period of tremendous changes. 3. Infants grow in motor ability and coordination, develop sensory skills, and develop abilities to use language. __________________________________________________________________________________ SRS 2/ 7
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PHD0015 HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Chapter 1 4. They also form attachments to family members and other caregivers, learn to trust or distrust, learn to express or withhold love and affection, learn to express basic feelings and emotions, and develop sense of self and independence. Early childhood 1. Preschool years (age three to six). 2. Children continue their rapid physical, cognitive, and linguistic growth. 3. They are better able to care for themselves, begin to develop a concept of self and of gender identities and roles, and become very interested in play with other children. 4. The quality of parent-child relationships is important in the socialization process. Middle childhood 1. During this period (age six to 11), children make significant advances in their ability to read, write, do arithmetic, understand their world, and think logically. 2. Achievement becomes vitally important, as does successful adjustment with parents. 3.
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1 - Social & Human Sciences Department (SAHSD) Centre...

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