chapter 1 - PHD 0015 Human Development Topic 1 The Study of...

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PHD 0015 Human Development Topic 1 The Study of Human Development Introduction (Refer textbook Chapter 1) .The field of human development is defined as the scientific study of processes in which people change, as well as of characteristics that remain fairly stable throughout life. .Its goals evolved to include description, explanation, prediction, and modification. .Developmental scientists are interested in two kinds of developmental change: quantitative and qualitative. .Change and stability occur in three domains or dimensions: physical development, cognitive development, and psychosocial development.
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Periods of the Life Span Prenatal period . The prenatal period includes the developmental processes from conception through birth, during which time, the human organism grows from a fertilized cell to billions of cells. . During this period, the basic body structure and organs are formed. Both heredity and environment influence the development. . During the early months, the organism is more vulnerable to negative environmental influences than during any other period of growth.
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Infancy .This period extends from childbirth through toddlerhood (birth to age three). .It is a period of tremendous changes. .Infants grow in motor ability and coordination, develop sensory skills, and develop abilities to use language. .They also form attachments to family members and other caregivers, learn to trust or distrust, learn to express or withhold love and affection, learn to express basic feelings and emotions, and develop sense of self and independence.
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Early childhood . Preschool years (age three to six). .Children  continue  their  rapid  physical,  cognitive, and linguistic growth. .They  are  better  able  to  care  for  themselves,  begin  to  develop  a  concept  of  self  and  of  gender  identities and  roles, and become  very  interested in play with other children. .The  quality  of  parent-child  relationships  is  important in the socialization process.
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Middle childhood .During this period (age six to 11),  children make significant advances  in their ability to read, write, do  arithmetic, understand their world,  and think logically. .Achievement becomes vitally  important, as does successful  adjustment with parents. .Both psychosocial and moral  developments proceed at a rapid  rate. .The quality of family relationships  continues to exert a major influence  on emotional and social adjustments.
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Adolescence . This is the period of transition between childhood and adulthood (age 11 or 12 to 20). .During early adolescence, sexual maturation takes
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This note was uploaded on 10/30/2010 for the course FOSEE CVL1040 taught by Professor None during the Spring '09 term at Multimedia University, Cyberjaya.

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chapter 1 - PHD 0015 Human Development Topic 1 The Study of...

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