4 - Social Human Sciences Department(SAHSD Centre for...

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PHD 0015 Human Development ONLINE NOTES FOSEE , MULTIMEDIA UNIVERSITY (436821-T) MELAKA CAMPUS, JALAN AYER KEROH LAMA, 75450 MELAKA, MALAYSIA. Tel 606 252 3594 Fax 606 231 8799 URL: http://fosee.mmu.edu.my/~asd/ (SAHSD) Centre for Foundation Studies and Extension Education (FOSEE)
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PHD0015 HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Chapter 4 PHD 0015 Human Development Topic 4 Early Childhood Introduction (Refer textbook Chapter7) 1. In early childhood, ages between three and six, children slim down and shoot up. 2. They need less sleep than before and are more likely to develop sleep problems. Physical Development in Early Childhood Physical changes 1. Physical growth increases during this period. Boys are on average slightly taller, heavier, and more muscular than girls. 2. Internal body systems are maturing and all primary teeth are present. 3. Preschoolers generally eat less but they may have obesity problem. Tooth decay may also a problem. 4. Sleep patterns change and bed-wetting or enuresis is common. 5. Children progress rapidly in gross and fine motor skills. They have better gross motor skills due to stronger bones, muscles, lung, and neuromuscular coordination. Preschool children also have better fine motor skills which involve a high degree of small-muscle and eye-hand coordination. 6. Handedness is usually evident by age three. Gross motor skills Fine-motor skills Age Broad jump 15-24 inches Hop up to 3 times Propel a wagon with one foot Ascend a stairway unaided, alternating feet Pedal a tricycle Basket catch of ball using body Copy a circle Draw a straight line Eat with a spoon Smear and daub paint Pour from a pitcher 3 years old SRS
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PHD0015 HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Chapter 4 Broad jump 24-34 inches Gallop Hop up to 6 steps on one foot Catch a bounced ball Draw shapes, simple figures Dress self Make crude letters Use blocks to build buildings Cut on a line with scissors 4 years old Gross motor skills Fine-motor skills Age Broad jump 28-36 inches Skip smoothly Hop on one foot for 16 feet Catch a small ball using hands Descend a long stairway unaided, alternating feet Jump one foot high Start, run, and stop effectively in games Can walk a balance beam Copy squares String beads Fasten visible buttons Manage zippers May tie shoelaces 5 years old Health and Safety 1. Minor illnesses, such as cold and respiratory illnesses, are common and help to build immunity to disease. 2. Accidents, most commonly motor vehicle injuries, are the leading cause of death. 3. Most fatal nonvehicular accidents occur at home. Cognitive Development in Early Childhood Piaget’s theory 1. The second stage of Piagetian theory is the preoperational stage. 2.
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4 - Social Human Sciences Department(SAHSD Centre for...

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