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C9 - Applied Science Department(ASD Centre for Foundation...

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FOSEE , MULTIMEDIA UNIVERSITY (436821-T) MELAKA CAMPUS, JALAN AYER KEROH LAMA, 75450 MELAKA, MALAYSIA. Tel 606 252 3594 Fax 606 231 8799 URL: http://fosee.mmu.edu.my/~asd/ PPH0075 Physics 1 Foundation in Engineering ONLINE NOTES Chapter 9 Heat Applied Science Department (ASD) Centre for Foundation Studies and Extension Education (FOSEE)
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PPH0075 Physics 1 Chapter 9 ______________________________________________________________________________________ ASD 2008/09 1/ 20 Heat -Heat: energy transferred; units: J -Temperature: relative measure of hotness or coldness; units: K, o C and o F Types of thermometers -depends on type of thermometric property; volume, resistance, pressure etc. Linear expansion ; α = Δ L T L Δ 0 Heat transfer : -Conduction: dL dT kA t Q H - = Δ = -Convection: heat is carried from place to place by the bulk movement -Radiation: σ e Q = At T 4 Specific heat capacity : T m Q C Δ = Latent heat: -latent heat of fusion: Q = mL f -latent heat of vaporization: Q = mL v Gas law : -Boyle’s law: V P 1 -Charles’ law: T V -Gay-Lussac’s Law: T P -Dalton’s law: 2 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 V V V p V V V p p + + + = Ideal gas law : ( ) V nT R P = Basics of thermodynamics -Zeroth law: A=B, B=C therefore A=C -First law: Total energy in closed system is constant. -Work =pressure x volume change ° ° = = f i V V pdV dW W -Isothermal changes: PV = constant -Adiabatic changes: ° Q=0 -Isobaric changes: W= Fd=PAd=P ° V -Isochoric changes: ° W=(p) ° V= 0
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PPH0075 Physics 1 Chapter 9 ______________________________________________________________________________________ ASD 2008/09 2/ 20 Chapter 9: HEAT 9.1 HEAT AND TEMPERATURE Imagine two objects placed in an insulated container so that they interact with each other but do not with the rest of the world. If the objects are at different temperature, energy is exchange within them. 9.1.1 Heat Heat refers to the energy that is transferred from a higher-temperature object to a lower temperature object when there is a difference in temperature. SI Unit of Heat: Joule (J) 9.1.2 Temperature Temperature is a relative measure or indication of hotness or coldness of an object or a system. Thermal Contact Two objects are said to be in thermal contact with each other if heat can be exchanged between them. Thermal Equilibrium A situation where two objects in contact with each other but no exchange of heat takes place. 9.2 UNIT OF TEMPERATURE AND UNIT CONVERSION 9.2.1 Units Fahrenheit (°F ) Celsius (°C ) Kelvin ( K ) 9.2.2 Unit Conversion a) From degree Celsius to Fahrenheit. 32 5 9 + = C F T T ( ° F) b) From degree Fahrenheit to Celsius. ( ) 32 9 5 - = F C T T C)
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PPH0075 Physics 1 Chapter 9 ______________________________________________________________________________________ ASD 2008/09 3/ 20 c) From Kelvin to degree Celsius. 15 . 273 - = K C T T ( ° C) d) From degree Celsius to Kelvin. 15 . 273 + = C K T T (K) EXAMPLE 1 A healthy person has an oral temperature of 98 ° C, what would this reading be on the Fahrenheit scales and Kelvin scales? Solution : Fahrenheit scale: 32 5 9 + = C F T T = ( ) 32 37 5 9 + = 98.6 ° C Kelvin scale: 15 . 273 + = C K T T = 37 + 273.15 = 310.15 Κ 9.3 TYPE OF THERMOMETERS 9.3.1 Thermometric Property A property that changes with temperature is called a thermometric property.
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