Chapter 2Motion Along a Straight LineIn this chapter we will study kinematics i.e. how objects move along a straight line. The following parameters will be defined:DisplacementAverage velocityAverage Speed Instantaneous velocity Average and instantaneous accelerationFor constant acceleration we will develop the equations that give us the velocity and position at any time. In particular we will study the motion under the influence of gravity close to the surface of the earth. Finally we will study a graphical integration method that can be used to analyze the motion when the acceleration is not constant (2-1)
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Kinematicsis the part of mechanics that describes the motion of physical objects. We say that an object moves when its position as determined by an observer changes with time. In this chapter we will study a restricted class of kinematics problemsMotion will be along a straight lineWe will assume that the moving objects are “particles” i.e. we restrict our discussion to the motion of objects for which all the points move in the same way. The causes of the motion will not be investigated. This will be done later in the course. Consider an object moving along a straight line taken to be the x-axis. The object’s position at any time t is described by its coordinate x(t)defined with respect to the origin O. The coordinate x can be positive or negative depending whether the object is located on the positive or the negative part of the x-axis (2-2)