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Chapter 6_Renal Physiology.pptx - Chapter 6 Renal...

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Chapter 6Renal Physiology
Kidney Anatomy
Nephron Anatomy
Renal Vasculature- Blood enters via renal artery- Branches into interlobararteries, arcuate arteries, andcortical radial arteries- Afferent arterioles – first set ofarterioles – deliver toglomerular capillaries-Leaves glomerular capillariesby efferent arterioles toperitubular capillaries (surroundnephrons)
Background image
Body Fluid – Total Body WaterIntracellular Fluid (ICF)Water inside the cells2/3 of total body water (40% ofbody weight)K+, Mg+2, proteins, organicphosphates (ADP, ATP, AMP)Extracellular Fluid (ECF)Water outside the cells1/3 of total body water (20% ofbody weight)Plasma and interstitial fluidNa+, Cl-, HCO3-
Plasma55% of blood volume is plasma,45% cellsHematocritvolume occupied by red blood cells
Shifts of Water between Body FluidsCompartments1.The volume of a body fluid compartment depends on the amount of solute itcontains.2.Osmolarity is the concentration of osmotically active particles.3.In the steady state, intracellular osmolarity is equal to extracellular osmolarity.4.Solutes such as NaCl and NaHCO are large sugars such as mannitol are assumedto be confined to the ECF compartment because they do not readily cross cellmembranes.Read through common disturbances in Chapter 6, be prepared to discuss onMonday/ask questions.
Renal ClearanceThe volume of plasma completely cleared of a substance by thekidneys per unit of timeC = [U]xx V / [P]xThus renal clearance is the ratio of urinary excretion to plasmaconcentration
InulinClearance is exactly equal to theglomerular filtration rate (GFR)Clearance ratio = Cx/ Cinulin= 1.0 glomerular marker<1.0 substance not filtered or itis filtered and reabsorbed>1.0 substance is filtered andsecreted
Sample ProblemIn a 24-hour period, 1.44 L of urine is collected from a man receivingan infusion of inulin.In his urine, the [inulin] is 150 mg/mL and the[Na+] is 200 mEq/L.In his plasma, the [inulin] is 1 mg/mL and the[Na+] is 140 mEq/L.What is the clearance ratio for Na+, and what isthe significance of this value?
Regulation of Renal Blood FlowRBF proportional to pressure gradient between renal artery and renalveinRBF inversely proportional to the resistance of the renal vasulcatureVasoconstrictorsVasodilatorsSympathetic nerves(catecholamines)PGE2Angiotension IIPGI2DopamineAtrial natriuretic peptide

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Term
Fall
Professor
N/A
Tags
ECF, Nephron

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