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Environmental Science Chapter 3 review questions

Environmental Science Chapter 3 review questions - Ariana...

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Ariana Font 10-10-10 Period 1 Environmental Science Chapter 3 Review Questions 1. What are the six key elements in living organisms, and where does each occur—in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, or lithosphere? - Elements that living organisms need : carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), and sulfur (S) - Atmosphere : “The lower atmosphere is a mixture of three important gases—oxygen (O 2 ), nitrogen (N 2 ), and carbon dioxide (CO 2 )—along with water vapor and trace amounts of several other gases that have no immediate biological importance.” - Hydrosphere : a source of hydrogen . Ex: water from the ocean and other bodies of water. “Each molecule of water consists of two hydrogen atoms bonded to an oxygen atom, so the chemical formula for water is H 2 O.” *Despite the changes of state, the water molecules themselves retain their basic chemical structure of two hydrogen atoms bonded to an oxygen atom. Only the relationship between the molecules changes.* - Lithosphere : “All the other elements required by living organisms (phosphorous and sulfur) , as well as the 72 or so elements that are not required by them, are found here, in the form of rock and soil minerals.” 2. What is the “common denominator” that distinguishes between organic and inorganic molecules? - “The key common denominator is carbon-carbon and carbon- hydrogen or carbon-oxygen bonds.” Therefore, carbon-based molecules are called organic molecules . - “Inorganic , then, refers to all other molecules or compounds— that is, those with neither carbon-carbon nor carbon-hydrogen bonds.” 3. In one sentence, define matter and energy, and demonstrate how they are related. - Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass, and energy, which does not have mass or take up space, affects matter because it changes its position or state.
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4. Give four examples of potential energy. In each case, how can the potential energy be converted into kinetic energy? - Stretched Rubber band : If the rubber band is let go then it will be put into physical motion, which is a type of kinetic energy. - Gasoline : when ignited, it releases kinetic energy, in the form or heat energy, light and movement. - Boulder on the top of a mountain : If something hits the boulder then its potential energy will send it down the mountain and physical movement would occur. - Water behind a dam : if the dam were opened then the potential energy from the water would make all of it cascade down with great force until it settles into a steady flow.
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