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Module 3, 4 1-14-10

Module 3, 4 1-14-10 - Introductory Psychology Dr Carol...

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Introductory Psychology Dr. Carol Suveg January 14, 2010 Blue text, you must know! Module 3: Neural and Hormonal Systems 1. Structural Components 1. History of the Mind 1. Phrenology – 1800s, psychologists suggested that bumps on the skull represented differences in mental abilities 2. Neuron – the body’s information system. Billions of interconnected cells make up this system. 1. Cell body – the Neuron’s life support 2. Dendrites – receive messages from other cells 3. Axon – send messages away from the cell body to other neurons, muscles or glands 4. Myelin Sheath – covers the axon of some neurons. The purpose is efficiency. 5. Neural impulse – electrical signal traveling down the axon 6. Terminal branches of axon – form junctions with other cells 3. Neural communication – humans and animals have similar systems. What matters is the size of the association areas. 1. The rat has almost no association area because it doesn’t engage in complex tasks 4. Action Potential – when stimulated, a neuron fires an impulse called an action potential. 1. A brief electrical charge that travels down the axon 2. Some are excitatory and some are inhibitory 5. Synapse – A junction (space) between the axon tip of the message-sending neuron and the dendrite of the receiving neuron 1. When the impulse reaches the axon terminal, neurotransmitters are released into the synapse. 6. Neurotransmitters – released when an action potential reaches the end of the axon. Don’t consider them as causation for psychological issues, but more as correlates of them. 1. Lock and Key Mechanism – one neurotransmitter molecule for each receptor site (like the enzymes and proteins) 2. Reuptake – when neurotransmitters don’t fit into the receptors, so the sending
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