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K IslamPsychology 45012/09/2019Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a mental disorder of theneurodevelopmental type, meaning a condition that is due to differences in thedevelopment and function of the nervous system. ("Attention Deficit and HyperactivityDisorder (ADHD) | Boston Children's Hospital") Neurodevelopmental violations include adecrease in the level of attention, memory, perception; inability to solve problems;difficulties in social interaction, etc. This disorder interferes with a person’s social,academic and professional development.There are no specific reasons that could be wholly linked to the occurrence anddevelopment of ADHD. There are possible causes of it, which include genetic,biochemical, and physiological. Scientists identify the following risk factors: heredity;cigarette smoking, alcohol or drug use during pregnancy; exposure to environmentaltoxins (for example, high levels of lead) during pregnancy or at a young age; low birthweight; brain injuries. ("NIMH » Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder") Besides, somescholars emphasize problems with the central nervous system at significant moments ina child’s development as a possible risk factor for ADHD. ("Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) In Children - Symptoms And Causes")
Scientists distinguish three types of ADHD: predominantly impulsive/hyperactive,predominantly inattentive, and combined. The first one is the least common, ischaracterized by impulsive and hyperactive behaviors without inattention anddistractibility. The second type is vice versa. Combined, which is the most common typeof ADHD, is characterized by simultaneously hyperactivity and inattention withdistractibility. ("Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) In Children") An estimated 8.4 percent of children have ADHD. (Danielson et al.) In general,the disorder is more common in boys, although the norm varies depending on the type.Predominantly hyperactive/impulsive type occurs more often in boys; predominantlyinattentive type occurs more often among girls. The disease usually begins up to 4years and invariably up to 12 years. However, in patients with a predominantlyinattentive type, the disorder can be diagnosed in adolescence. However, many expertsbelieve that ADHD is often over-diagnosed mainly due to inaccurate application of thediagnostic criteria.The main symptoms of ADHD include inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity.Inattention, as a rule, manifests itself when a child performs tasks that require alertness,a quick reaction, visual perception and a steady concentration of attention, as well as along and focused perception of verbal information. ("What Is ADHD?") Impulsivenessrefers to hasty actions with negative potential (for example, in children who cross thestreet without looking, in adolescents and adults who suddenly drop out of school orwork, without thinking about the consequences). Hyperactivity includes excessive motoractivity. Children with ADHD may have problems in situations that require just sitting still(for example, at school or in church). In later childhood, the symptoms of ADHD become
more pronounced. Children with hyperactive-impulsive type or combined type often