psychology ADHD Research paper 2019.docx - K Islam...

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K Islam Psychology 450 12/09/2019 Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type, meaning a condition that is due to differences in the development and function of the nervous system. ("Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) | Boston Children's Hospital") Neurodevelopmental violations include a decrease in the level of attention, memory, perception; inability to solve problems; difficulties in social interaction, etc. This disorder interferes with a person’s social, academic and professional development. There are no specific reasons that could be wholly linked to the occurrence and development of ADHD. There are possible causes of it, which include genetic, biochemical, and physiological. Scientists identify the following risk factors: heredity; cigarette smoking, alcohol or drug use during pregnancy; exposure to environmental toxins (for example, high levels of lead) during pregnancy or at a young age; low birth weight; brain injuries. ("NIMH » Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder") Besides, some scholars emphasize problems with the central nervous system at significant moments in a child’s development as a possible risk factor for ADHD. ("Attention- Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) In Children - Symptoms And Causes")
Scientists distinguish three types of ADHD: predominantly impulsive/hyperactive, predominantly inattentive, and combined. The first one is the least common, is characterized by impulsive and hyperactive behaviors without inattention and distractibility. The second type is vice versa. Combined, which is the most common type of ADHD, is characterized by simultaneously hyperactivity and inattention with distractibility. ("Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) In Children") An estimated 8.4 percent of children have ADHD. (Danielson et al.) In general, the disorder is more common in boys, although the norm varies depending on the type. Predominantly hyperactive/impulsive type occurs more often in boys; predominantly inattentive type occurs more often among girls. The disease usually begins up to 4 years and invariably up to 12 years. However, in patients with a predominantly inattentive type, the disorder can be diagnosed in adolescence. However, many experts believe that ADHD is often over-diagnosed mainly due to inaccurate application of the diagnostic criteria. The main symptoms of ADHD include inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Inattention, as a rule, manifests itself when a child performs tasks that require alertness, a quick reaction, visual perception and a steady concentration of attention, as well as a long and focused perception of verbal information. ("What Is ADHD?") Impulsiveness refers to hasty actions with negative potential (for example, in children who cross the street without looking, in adolescents and adults who suddenly drop out of school or work, without thinking about the consequences). Hyperactivity includes excessive motor activity. Children with ADHD may have problems in situations that require just sitting still (for example, at school or in church). In later childhood, the symptoms of ADHD become
more pronounced. Children with hyperactive-impulsive type or combined type often

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