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IntroBio-12- Gene expression

IntroBio-12- Gene expression - Gene expression 1 Central...

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Gene expression 1
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Central dogma DNA (genes) RNA protein Exception: retroviruses (HIV) 2
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3
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Genetic code The way the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule encodes the information that specifies the order of amino acids in a polypeptide 4
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4 bases ≠ 20 amino acids 4 3 = 64 different combinations 20 amino acids 64 codons 3 nucleotides ( codon ) specify 1 amino acid 5
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6
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Redundancy - several codons may code for the same amino acid No ambiguity a codon never codes for two different amino acids 7
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Stop codons UAA, UAG, UGA Do not encode amino acids Indicate the end of translation 8
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Start codon AUG Indicates beginning of translation Encodes an amino acid - methionine 9
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10
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Gene organization Exons Regions of the gene that contain coding DNA Introns Do not code for any part of the polypeptide 11
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12
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Steps from DNA to protein 1) Transcription (nucleus) 2) mRNA splicing (nucleus) 3) Translation (ribosomes) 13
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Transcription DNA sequence (gene) is copied into mRNA Requires RNA polymerase enzyme 14
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