IntroBio-13-Evolution

IntroBio-13-Evolution - Evolution 1 Evolution Change in...

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Unformatted text preview: Evolution 1 Evolution Change in allele frequencies in a population over time 2 Evolution explains: Origin of species Diversity of organisms and their relationships Similarities and differences among species Adaptation to the environment 3 History of Evolutionary Theory 4 Aristotle Scale of Nature Classified objects and living organisms from simplest to the most complex forms Each form of life was perfect and permanent 5 Renaissance All organisms had been created by God Species could never change, arise or become extinct 6 Carolus Linneaus Science of taxonomy - binomial system of naming organisms according to genus and species 7 Georges Cuvier Paleontology- study of fossils Catastrophism : changes between geological strata marked an extinction event due to a dramatic change in environment Each layer of fossils represented the remains of organisms that died in a catastrophe 8 Jean Baptiste Lamarck 1. Use and disuse principle : body parts grow in proportion to how much they are used 2. Inheritance of acquired characteristics principle : changes an animal acquires during its lifetime are inherited by its offspring 9 Charles Lyell Uniformitarianism : geological processes that formed the Earths surface over long periods of time are operating today and at the same rate 10 Charles Darwin (1809 1882) 11 Charles Darwin 1859 On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection Organisms are des cended with modifications from a common ancestor Mechanism ( natural selection ) to explain how evolution takes place 12 Natural selection is based on 5 observations: 1. If all individuals in a population reproduced successfully, the population size would increase exponentially 2. But population size tends to remain stable 13 3. Natural resources are limited 4. Members of a population vary in their characteristics 5. Much of this variation between individuals is heritable 14 Conclusions: There is a differential success in reproduction Organisms produce more offspring than the resources available to them can support This leads to a struggle for existence among the individuals of a population 15 Survival depends in part on inherited characteristics Individuals whose inherited traits give them a high probability of surviving and reproducing in a given environment have higher fitness and are likely to leave more offspring then less fit individuals 16 Fitness Survival of the fittest Genetic contribution of an individual to the gene pool of the next generation 17 Heritable traits Expression of genes that are passed on to offspring during reproduction 18 Adaptation Heritable trait that allows organisms to survive and reproduce better under existing environmental conditions 19...
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IntroBio-13-Evolution - Evolution 1 Evolution Change in...

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