IntroBio-14-Ecology

IntroBio-14-Ecology - Ecology 1 I. Ecology Scientific study...

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Unformatted text preview: Ecology 1 I. Ecology Scientific study of the interactions between organisms and their environment Review : Species, population, community, ecosystem, biosphere 2 A. Biotic factors All the organisms in the environment 3 B. Abiotic factors Non-living (chemical and physical) factors: Temperature Water Sunlight Wind Rocks and soil 4 II. Population ecology Studies populations in relation to the environment 5 A. Population density Number of individuals of a species per unit area or volume Use of sampling techniques instead of counting every single individual ( mark-recapture method ) 6 B. Dispersion patterns Pattern of spacing of individuals within their area 7 1. Clumped Individuals aggregate in patches 8 2. Uniform Individuals are evenly spaced 9 3. Random Individuals are spaced in an unpredictable pattern 10 III. Population growth Growth of a population is equal to number of births minus number of deaths 11 A. Exponential growth Rapid increase in numbers of individuals under ideal conditions (no limit on natural resources) Constant rate of increase results in a J-shaped growth curve 12 13 14 B. Logistic growth In real life a population may grow exponentially for a while There is a limit to the number of individuals an environment can support 15 Each population has its carrying capacity (maximum size of the population that the environment can support) The logistic growth produces an S- shaped growth curve 16 17 IV. Limiting factors A. Density-dependent limiting factors Conditions or events that lower reproductive rates and get worse with overcrowding (food supply, wastes, disease) 18 B. Density-independent limiting factors Conditions or events that lower reproductive rates but their effects do not vary with crowding Environmental factors (fire, flood, storms, habitat disruption) Climate; seasonal changes in weather 19 V. Human population growth 20 A. Fire and tool-making revolution Homo sapiens brought tools and fire making abilities through the ice ages (100,000) even though they were not the first humans to use fire or tools 21 B.B....
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IntroBio-14-Ecology - Ecology 1 I. Ecology Scientific study...

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