Exam 2 Study Guide

Exam 2 Study Guide - EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE Chapter 8 Cell...

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Chapter 8 – Cell cycle and cell division Genetics, heredity, trait, gene, chromatin vs. chromosome, duplicated vs. unduplicated chromosome, chromatid, sister vs. non-sister chromatid, centromere Somatic cell vs. gamete; autosomes vs. sex chromosomes, homologous chromosomes, karyotype Chromosome number; diploid vs. haploid (2n vs. n) Reproductions; asexual vs. sexual reproduction; gamete production; fertilization, zygote Cell cycle: interphase, S phase, mitosis vs. meiosis (stages, what happens at each stage, number of chromosomes at each stage, results), tetrad formation, crossing over, genetic variability, cytokinesis Differences between mitosis and meisos; functions of mitosis and meiosis Checkpoints: p.123, p. 129 (Q1, Q3), p. 133 (Q1,Q2), p. 135 (table), p.139 (Q1, Q2, Q3) Self quiz: Q1, Q2, Q3, Q5, Q6, Q7, Q12 Chapter 9- Mendelian Genetics Gregor Mendel; dominant vs. recessive; phenotype vs. genotype; allele; homozygous vs. heterozygous vs. hemizygous; monohybrid cross; Punnet square; complete dominanace vs. codominance (ABO blood types) *Hemizygous : only one allele for the gene is present, when one copy of a gene is deleted or when a gene is located on a sex chromosome. Chapter 9- Human Genetics 3 patterns of inheritance (autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, x-linked recessive); examples of disorders, multifactorial inheritance *Cystic fibrosis : Autosomal recessive, most common fatal genetic disorder among Northern Europeans *Huntington disease : autosomal dominant, late onset, all ethnic groups and both sexes affected *Hemophilia : X-linked recessive; heterozygous/homozygous dominant females unaffected, homozygous recessive females affected; males- hemizygous (b/c one X, one Y). If X is recessive, male will be affected. Nondisjunction; Down syndrome (trisomy 21), female triple X, Turner syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome *Turner Syndrome : missing sex-chromosome, only 45 chromosomes in total (sex chromosomes: XO rather than XX or XY); result: female with short statue, low hairline, characteristic facial features, fold of skin on neck, shield- shaped thorax, constriction of aorta, poor breast development, widely spaced nipples, elbow deformity, shortened metacarpal IV, rudimentary ovaries, gondal streak (underdeveloped gondal structures), no menstruation, brown spots across body (nevi), small finger nails *Klinefelter syndrome : extra sex-chromosome, 47 chromosomes in total (sex chromosomes: XXY) result: male, tall stature, slightly feminized physique, mildly impaired IQ, frontal baldness absent, poor beard growth, tendency to lose chest hairs, breast development, osteoporosis, female-type pubic hair pattern, testicular atrophy Checkpoints: p. 152 (Q2, Q4a), p. 155 (Q2,Q3), p.160 (Q2), p. 166(Q1,Q2) p. 152 Q2: How can two plants that have different genotypes for flower color be identical in phenotype? One flower could have a homozygous dominant genotype and the other could have a heterozygous genotype. Both
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This note was uploaded on 11/01/2010 for the course BIO 110 taught by Professor Drazkiewicz during the Fall '09 term at San Mateo Colleges.

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Exam 2 Study Guide - EXAM 2 STUDY GUIDE Chapter 8 Cell...

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