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CH10,16 Environment

CH10,16 Environment - Cht10 The Environment and Development...

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Cht10: The Environment and Development Economics and the Environment Environmental issues affect, and are affected by, economic development the livelihood of more than half of the economically active population in the developing world directly depends on the environment through agriculture, as wellas animal husbandry, hunting, fishing, forestry, and foraging. Poverty and ignorance may lead to non-sustainable use of environmental resources Global warming and climate change The growing consumption need of LDC populations may have global environment impact. This is increasing concern in the MDCs that the destruction of the world’s remaining forests, which are concentrated in a number of highly indebted developing countries will greatly contribute to global warming through the greenhouse effect. Environment and Development: The Basic Issues Population, resources, and the environment Pop:A slowing of population growth rates would help ease the intensification of many environmental problem. However, the rate and timing of fertility declines, and the eventual size of world population, will largely depend on the commitment of governments to creating economic and institutional conditions that are conductive to limiting fertility Resources: rapidly growing population have led to land, water, and fuel wood shortages in rural areas and to urban heath crises stemming from lack of sanitation and clean water. Poverty and the environment High fertility is blamed for problems that are attributable to poverty itself. For environmental policies to succeed in developing countries, they must first address the issues of landlessness, poverty, and lack of access to institutional resources. Insecure land tenure right, lack of credit and inputs, and absence of information often prevent the poor from making resource augmenting investments that would help preserve the environmental assets from which they derive their livelihood. Growth versus the environment The poor cause considerable environmental destruction as a direct result of their poverty. It follows that increasing the economic status of the poorest group would provide an environmental windfall. As per capita incomes rose, pollution and other forms of environmental degration would first rise and then fall in an inverted-U
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pattern -environmental Kuznets curve. As incomes rise,the willingness to pay for environmental protection . Rural development and the environment h The increased accessibility of agricultural inputs to small farmers and the introduction of sustainable methods of farming will help create attractive alternatives to current environmentally destructive patterns of resource use. Land –augmenting investments can greatly increase the yields from cultivated land and help ensure future food self- sufficiency. Urban development
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CH10,16 Environment - Cht10 The Environment and Development...

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