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CH14 Foreign Finance, Investment and Aid

CH14 Foreign Finance, Investment and Aid - Ch14 Foreign...

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Ch14. Foreign Finance, Investment and Aid: Controversies and Opportunities * Three main form of international flow of financial resources: 1. Private foreign direct and portfolio investment consisting of a) Foreign direct investment by large multinational corporations b) Foreign portfolio investment in LDC emerging credit and equity markets by private institutions and individuals 2. Remittances of earning by international migrants (foreign aid, which used by many developing countries) 3. Public and private development assistance from a) individual national governments and multinational donor agencies and increasingly, b) private nongovernmental organization working directly with development nations at the local level * Private foreign direct investment and the multinational corporation Multinational corporation (MNC) – defined as corporation or enterprise that conducts and controls productive activities in more than one country; usually with large/ high income/GDP corporation; present a unique opportunities but may pose serious problems for the many developing counties in which they operate. MNC are not in development business, their objective is to max return on capital; seek out best profit opportunities and are largely unconcerned with issue such as poverty, inequality, employment conditions and environmental problems Foreign direct investment (FDI) – recently rapid growth in developing countries - Majority of FDI flow from one country to another; and developing countries are heavily concentrated on just a few destinations. - Private capital gravitates toward countries and regions with the highest financial returns and the greatest perceived safety * MNC: size, patterns and trends  MNC Central characteristics: large size and worldwide operation and activities centrally controlled by parents companies. They are the major forces in the rapid globalization of world trade. *  Private foreign investment: Pros and cons for development Pros:  private foreign investment is typically seen as a way of filling in gaps  - The saving investment gaps - Foreign exchange/trade gaps (that is the gap between targeted foreign-exchange  requirement and those derived from net export earning +net public foreign aid)
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- The revenue gap (that is the gap between targeted governmental tax revenue and  locally raised taxes - The gap in management, entrepreneurship, technology, and skill presumed. Cons:  Private foreign investments can also widening gaps - MNC can raise a large fraction of their capital locally in the developing country itself,  and may lead to some crowding out of investment of local firms - MNC initially improve foreign-exchange position, but in long-run impact may reduce  foreign-exchange earning on both current and capital accounts, wider gaps  between local and foreign companies 
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