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Anthropology 901 Macroevolution

Anthropology 901 Macroevolution - c Fossils provide us with...

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Anthropology 9/1/10 Macro Evolution A. Macroevolution a. Micro- studies changes within a species over time b. Macro- studies evolution at or above the species level over extremely long stretches of geologic time. Concerned with the extinctions of species and the creation of new. c. Methods to study Macro i. Involves the study of fossils and comparative anatomy of living organisms B. Fossils a. Traditionally fossils are remains of animals, insects, plants, bacteria, etc. from past that are older than 3,000 years b. Rare due to decomposition c. Covered by sediment d. Minerals permeate the cells and replace the originals e. Typically species that are numerous, have harder body parts, and existed for longer periods of time f. Often provide great detail including bone structure, feathers, and even skin C. Why are Fossils important? a. Cuvier- fossils help us understand evolution b. Fossils are associated with certain strata and help us to date objects
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Unformatted text preview: c. Fossils provide us with a record of the changes that have to happen to organisms over time D. Anagenesis vs Cladogenesis a. Anagenesis – The gradual transformation from one species to the next i. Phyletic gradualism: How one species transformed into another ii. Based on Microevolution (Proposed by Darwin) iii. No species per se, everything in constant flux b. Cladogenesis – Emergence from fossils of several descendent species i. Long periods of stability followed by sudden change (cuvier) ii. How do new species appear by their ancestors? E. Punctuated Equilibrium a. Gould and Eldredge propose long periods of stability and sudden spurts of speciation b. Drastic changes in environment modify the gene pool i. Break up populations ii. Rapid from a geological perspective iii. Difference seem major, but not really c. No balance or direction in nature...
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Anthropology 901 Macroevolution - c Fossils provide us with...

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