Early Hominins - d. Less surface area for sun to heat up e....

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Early Hominins: Walking Upright 1) Pliocene Area – Locomotion and Diet a. 5 to 1.28 mya 2) Evolutionary Trends a. Bipedalism b. Distinctive Dentition i. Molars become larger, smaller front teeth, arch of the mouth c. Big Brain d. Appearance of Culture i. Reliance on learned behaviors passed down from generations 3) Mosaic Evolution a. Says that one part gets changed while another changes at a later time i. Shoulder one of earliest changes ii. Every change involves some tradeoff 4) Differences between bipeds and whatever a. Human pelvises are lower and bowlier and upright to balance weight b. When standing human quadrupeds aren’t enganged c. Femur is knockneed. . knees point inward and femurs is angled. More balance d. Big toe is forward facing e. Foramen Magnum, hole of skull to connect spine to brain. Humans have it directly under skull while apes have it behind skull f. Human eyes look straight ahead
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5) Advantages of Bipedalism a. Can see predators or prey by standing up higher b. Can run for long periods of time c. Frees up hands
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Unformatted text preview: d. Less surface area for sun to heat up e. More day activities f. Track prey for long periods of time g. Mate selection 6) Bipedal Disadvantages a. Pelvic is smaller so childbirth is worse b. No infant clinging c. Genitals are less protected 7) Ardipithecus Ramidus a. Possibly earliest hominin b. Apelike diet c. Lived in jungle 8) Australopithecus a. Lucy b. Ethiopean c. Lived in savannah d. Bipedal e. Stable species f. Small bodied g. Sexual dimorphic h. Growth and development more chimplike i. Primarily vegetarian j. Smaller brains 400-500 cm3 k. Reduced canines l. Simple tool technology 9) A. Africanus: South African a. Fossilized brain b. Gracile 10)Robust vs Gracile a. Robust has a sagittal crest (a line on top of the skull) for muscles to be anchored b. Robust: Thicker check bones c. Robust: Flatter face d. Robust: Thicker brows e. Robust: Bigger Teeth f. Humans are descendants of gracile forms g. Gracile have steeper foreheads 11)...
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Early Hominins - d. Less surface area for sun to heat up e....

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