Coffee - ANTH/PATH 2010 PLANTS PATHOGENS AND PEOPLE Coffee...

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ANTH/PATH 2010 PLANTS, PATHOGENS AND PEOPLE Coffee Rust - Why tea is the national drink of Britain. 19 th century - UK was world’s largest coffee producer Plant disease (coffee rust) completely destroyed coffee production in Sri Lanka (Ceylon) Coffee (60 species exist but only 2 used commercially) Coffea arabica (fine coffee bean ~70%), self fertile, susceptble to disease and frost Coffea robusta (canephora) (crude bean~30%), self infertile, resistant to some diseases Perennial that requires 3yrs from planting to berry production Coffee is an important crop worldwide ± most valuable, legally traded commodity after oil ± 1/3 of exports of Latin America ± 20- 25 million people involved in coffee production ± economies of many developing countries rely on coffee. o little or no industrialization and need money to import goods. Top coffee producers: Brazil, Colombia, Indonesia, Vietnam, Mexico, Ethiopia, India, Guatemala, Ivory Coast, Uganda - 2/3 of coffee production in Central, Latin America and the Caribbean Coffee biology – center of geographical origin = Ethiopia Coffee bushes are 6-8' tall, and often grown under shade - understory species ± Bloom 1X/yr - fragrant white flowers.
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Grows in highlands of tropics: cool nights, volcanic soil, high rainfall Coffee berries produced in clusters at stem internodes. Each berry contains 2 beans covered w/ tough parchment (integument & soft flesh) Coffee does not mature evenly. ± fruit ripens gradually over a month.
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± cannot be mechanically harvested ± manual harvesting - labor-intensive ± flesh has to be removed w/ grinding and fermentation ± -fermentation contributes to flavor (yeasts, bacteria) ± seeds dried in sun, stirred regularly. ± If there is rain, beans must be dried in ovens ± coffee beans shipped with the parchment on ± mechanically removed before roasting. ± -bean flavor declines after 1 month in storage Caffeine Coffee has stimulating effect due to a water soluble alkaloid - caffeine. ± Widely used to relieve fatigue ± Caffeine is secondary metabolite that accumulates in plant tissues ± approximately 2% of the coffee seed/bean ± Plants get rid of waste by dropping leaves or beans Tea contains 2x caffeine as coffee However, tea leaves contain tannins - bitter taste. ± tea steeped for a short time to prevent release of tannins ± when prepared this way, tea has < 1/3 caffeine of coffee. Coffee rust Pathogen Hemileia vastatrix ± fungus, obligate parasite ± originated in Africa along with the coffee plant ± first observed in Kenya in 1861
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Coffee rust disease cycle
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Sources of inoculum The fungus arrives in plantation as spores on wind. ± spores land on leaves and under warm humid conditions (persistent during rainy season in Asia) germinate by hyphae. ± hyphae penetrate the leaves via stomata and rapidly colonize host tissues.
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Coffee - ANTH/PATH 2010 PLANTS PATHOGENS AND PEOPLE Coffee...

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