Pre-famine Ireland

Pre-famine Ireland - ANTH/PATH 2010 PLANTS, PATHOGENS AND...

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ANTH/PATH 2010 PLANTS, PATHOGENS AND PEOPLE Pre-famine Life in Ireland Brief history of Irish/British interactions 7,000 BC - Ireland inhabited by hunter-gatherers and fishermen 6 th century BC - Celts arrived from Europe - Iron age 5 th century A.D. - Christianity established through missionary work by St. Patrick
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1169 AD – Normans from England and Wales conquered Irish and brought Common Law – ownership of property vs. Irish way – ownership by extended family/clans/tribes Brehon Law (Original Irish Way) Land was common property owned by tribe as individuals died it reverted to the tribe for reassignment few families owned private land until the arrival of the Normans in the 12 th century over time this system eroded and individuals owned private land as they died the land was divided amongst the next of kin led to land fragmentation 1367 – Statutes of Kilkenny: English settlers were adopting Irish culture and ways. 35 acts passed to prevent the mixing of English and Irish e.g. marriage between Normans and Irish was prohibited 1530s - King Henry VIII broke away from Catholic Church & established himself as head of Church of England. Many Irish remained Catholic Religious majority ruled by Protestant minority 1601 - after defeating Irish and Spanish, British established a strong government in Dublin British had a policy of removing Irish from land and replacing them with Protestant settlers Colonists were given large estates. 1641. - Irish rebelled against Welsh but were defeated and driven off 11 million acres 1690. - Penal laws - intended to remove power from Catholic majority
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Irish Catholics could not: own a gun or sword be educated enter a profession vote hold public office practice religion engage in trade buy land receive land as a gift or inherit land rent land worth > 30 shillings/year own a horse worth > £5 educate children 1800 - Irish Parliament was brought under British parliament in Dublin. Only Irish Protestants were allowed to be MPs. 1829 - Irish Catholics won the right to be in British Parliament Pre-famine Social Structure Class was a significant aspect of social structure Ascendancy Class English and Anglo-Irish land owners: wealthy aristocracy owned most of the land and had power over tenants lived in England; had little interest in land or tenants except for rent Middlemen administered property on behalf of landowners Collected rent/evicted tenants etc…
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Middle-sized landowners o Cottiers - small land owners o Landless laborers (25% of population) – bound; unbound workers Bound workers contracted to work certain number of days for a mud cabin, a small plot of land (conacre) and other privileges produced corn, oats, pork, and dairy etc. for rent. potatoes for their own consumption.
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This note was uploaded on 11/01/2010 for the course PATH 2010 taught by Professor Walcott during the Fall '10 term at UGA.

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Pre-famine Ireland - ANTH/PATH 2010 PLANTS, PATHOGENS AND...

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