Test 2 - Biotechnology Lecture 1 Production of commercial...

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Biotechnology- Lecture 1 Production of commercial products generated by the metabolic action of biological organisms (microorganisms) Using biological organisms as factories o Produces pharmaceuticals, genetically modified crops, disease resistant livestock, microbes Traditional biotechnology(old way): Fermentation o Silk, wool, beer, agriculture breeding, New biotechnology: improving production of biological products using recombinant DNA technology o First thing created from new technology was insulin (diabetes patients) o Human growth hormone (HGH) Playing God is that right? o Humans be genetically engineered Proteins o polymers of amino acids RNA/DNA (hereditary material) o polymers of nucleotides o 4 possible side groups called nucleotides A- adenine G-guanine C-cytosine T-thymine - DNA U-uracil – RNA Cells to Biomolecules to Genes - Lecture 2 Cell o basic unit of life o All organisms are made up of cells o Two main organizational patterns for cells Prokaryotic: Bacteria and Archaea No membrane enclosed internal compartments, simplest Eukaryotic: Us, plants, fungi Membrane enclosed internal compartments, more complex o Cells have a lot of parts to… Survive - harsh environments, predators, viruses Replicate - lots of parts means lots of things to copy DNA o Polymer of nucleotides o Double strand with hydrogen bond o Uses deoxyribose as the sugar base RNA o Single strand
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o Uses ribose as the sugar base o Messenger from DNA Chromosomes o Humans have 23 chromosomes o Made up of DNA and protein Gene o Chromosomes contain genes, the hereditary units o Segment of DNA that codes for a particular protein which helps to control a particular hereditary trait Central Dogma- Lecture 3 Central Dogma o Process of DNA to RNA to Proteins o All organisms made up of cells o All cells have genomes containing DNA o Genomes are subdivided into genes. o Genes give information required to make a protein (function) Replication: Making a replica of the whole book Transcription: Copying a recipe from the book onto an index o The code from the gene is copied by creating a piece of messenger RNA (mRNA) that contains the code o A complement of a gene is created in a piece of mRNA o RNA Polymerase Start region is the promoter region Process ends when a stop codon is recognized o Step 1: Initiation The RNA polymerase binds at a special sequence in DNA called a promoter The polymerase separates the double stranded DNA o Step 2: Elongation Of the RNA chain involves successive addition of nucleotides in the 5' to 3' direction o Step 3: Termination A stop signals indicating the end of the gene is encountered Translation: Using the recipe on the index card to make a dish o The piece of mRNA is used as a template by a ribosome to create the protein
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Test 2 - Biotechnology Lecture 1 Production of commercial...

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