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chem pres ch 7 and 8 - Chapters 7 8 Atomic Structure and...

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Chapters 7 & 8 Atomic Structure and Periodicity: Wavelength ( )—is the distance between two consecutive peaks or troughs in a wave. Frequency ( )—the number of waves (cycles) per second that pass a given point in space. Speed of Light ( )— 2.9979 x 10 8 m/s Formulas: or or, Examples: 1. What is the frequency of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength of 750 nm? ν = 3.0 x 10 8 m/s λ = 750 nm x 1 m = 7.5 x 10 9 m 7.5 x 10 -7 m 1 x 10 9 nm ν = 4.00 x 10 14 Hertz 2. What is the wavelength of EMR with a frequency of 3.09 x 10 5 Hertz? λ = 3.0 x 10 8 m/s 3.09 x 10 5 Hz λ = 970 m 3. What is the energy of EMR with a wavelength of 450 nm? ν = 3.0 x 10 8 m/s λ = 450 nm x 1 m = 4.5 x 10 -7 m 4.5 x 10 -7 m 1 x 10 9 nm ν = 6.67 x 10 14 Hertz E = 6.63 x 10 -34 J x 6.67 x 10 14 Hz Energy ( e )—measured in joules Planck’s constant ( h ) = 6.626 × 10 −34 Joules/Sec
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E = 4.42 x 10 -19 Quantum numbers: Examples: Which of the following sets of quantum numbers are not allowed? For each incorrect set, state why it is incorrect. a. n=3 l=3 m l =0 m s =1/2 b. n=4 l=3 m l =2 m s = -1/2 c. n=2 l=1 m l = -1 m s = -1 d. n=3 l=1 m l = 2 m s = -1/2 Quantum numbers —describe various properties of the orbital. Principal quantum number (n) —period number on periodic table. Is related to the size and energy of the orbital. As n increases, the orbital becomes larger and also means higher energy. Angular momentum quantum number (l) —related to the shape of atomic orbitals.
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