HALLUCINOGENS - HALLUCINOGENS: A drug that radically...

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HALLUCINOGENS: A drug that radically changes a person's mental state by distorting the perception of reality to the point where hallucinations occur. Illusionogenic, psychotomimetic, psychedelic, and mind-expanding 4 General types: 1) Anticholinergics -scopolamine -atropine 2) Catecholamine-like -mescaline (peyote) 3) Serotonin-like -LSD -psilocybin, psilocin ("mushrooms) 4) Anesthetic-like -phencyclidine (PCP) -Ketamine - GHB ANTICHOLINERGICS Atropine (atropa belladonna; jimson weed) - herb tea, can be smoked or eaten Scopolamine (mandrake) - Root consumed - Synthetics : medicine uses: treatment of nausea, motion sickness, intestinal cramping, and used experimentally to model amnesia Mechanism of action:
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Acetylcholine antagonist: block acetylcholine receptors mostly the muscarinic type (this is a slow receptor that modulates K+ channel) Effects: PNS: *depress salivation *reduce sweating *increase body temp *dilate pupils *blur vision *increase heart rate CNS: *drowsiness *mild euphoria *profound amnesia *confusion *fatigue *hallucination CATECHOLAMINE-LIKE DRUGS Peyote (Mescaline) : south west peyote cactus. The heads or "buttons" of the cactus are dried Usually taken orally, sometimes inhaled by smoking ground peyote "buttons", rarely injected Less potent than LSD, with an average dose ranging from 300 to 500 mg. Effects: Slow onset and long lasting (4-18 hours) Low doses: PNS:
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Dilated pupils Increased body temp Muscle relaxation CNS: Brightly colored illusions Euphoria Altered body image Mystical experiences High doses: *headache, *dry skin, *low blood pressure *cardiac depression *slowing breathing rate. Mechanisms of action: Unknown: However it resembles Norepinephrine, but may also involve dopamine and 5HT Appears not be metabolized before it is excreted SEROTONIN-LIKE DRUGS: I. LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide) derived from lysergic acid, a substance found in ergot (fungus growing on grains) Pure LSD: white, odorless powder Street doses variable (40 to 700 micrograms per "hit") Extremely potent: minute doses (50 to 100 micro grams) LSD is by far the most potent 100 times stronger than psilocybin 4,000 times stronger than mescaline.
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Mechanism of action: Blocks serotonin receptors Leads to:
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This note was uploaded on 11/02/2010 for the course PSYC 330 taught by Professor Lisman during the Spring '08 term at Binghamton University.

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HALLUCINOGENS - HALLUCINOGENS: A drug that radically...

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