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MOOD DISORDERS - MOOD DISORDERS of time 1 Unipoloar...

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MOOD DISORDERS 1. Unipoloar Depression: 2. Bipolar disorder (manic-depressive) Depression: An emotional disorder were the person is profoundly sad for a period of time 1. loses the ability to experience pleasure 2. denies accomplishments 3. fells unworthy 4. express suicidal ideas (untreated 25% will commit suicide) 5. loss of appetite & weight 6. sleep abnormalities 7. persists for more than 2 weeks Depression: Prevalence females 9-26% males 5-12% Types: A) Reactive-Exogenous: no evidence of psychosis, no genetic component, no biochemical origin, need severe precipitating event B) Endogenous: genetic component, biochemical origin, mild-to-severe precipitating event, possibility of psychosis Biochemical Hypothesis Depression I. Catecholamine hypothesis -deficiency in norepinephrine (NE) & possible dopamine (DA) -(mania maybe related to the opposite effect)
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*High concentration of receptors in the limbic system (emotion)
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II. Monoamine hypothesis: *DA system seems to be involved in stimulant rather than antidepressant activity *The inhibiting reuptake of NE and serotonin has antidepressant activity a) There is a hypoadrenergic state b) There is a hyperresponisive NE c) There is a hyposerotonin state Previous treatments: a) Stimulants b) Electroconvulsive therapy (still used for severe cases) c) Psychotherapy (still used w/wo drugs) Current Drug treatments: a) Tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) b) Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors c) Second generation antidepressants TRICYCLIC ANTIDEPRESSANTS 1. Examples *Imipamine (Tofranil) *Desipramine (Norpramin, Pertofrane)
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