Opiates - The Opiates History: • Eastern Mediterranean...

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Unformatted text preview: The Opiates History: • Eastern Mediterranean cultures- Arab, Greek, Egyptian, Indian: Medicine & recreation uses • Britain sold opium to China: Led to war and British control of Hong Kong Britain's East India Company waged three wars on the people of China in order to secure the right to sell opium. • Late 1800-1900’s: Sold as tonic in the USA • 1914 Harrison Narcotics Act Appearance • Opium appears as dark brown chunks or as a powder and is usually smoked or eaten. • Heroin can be a white or brownish powder Distinct alkaloids: • 1. Morphine • 2. Codeine • Heroin is a semi-synthetic: It is derived from morphine and codeine. Natural and Synthetic Opiates: Synthesized opiates: • During the past few years, synthetic opioids (such as Demerol, Percodan) have gained prominence as drugs of dependence. Medical Uses: • Analgesia • Decrease GI tract motility • Cough suppressant Abuse: • Heroin ("junk," "smack") accounts for about 90 percent of the opiate abuse – Euphoria 1 – Sedation (calming) 2 Pharmacokinetics: • 1. Route of Administration: – Oral: (tablets): absorption is slow and incomplete – Injection: • Subcutaneous (skin popping): • Moderate onset • IV: fast onset (2-10 sec) – Inhalation (smoked): • Almost as quick as IV • 2. Distribution: – binds to proteins in the blood – distributes to most body tissues – Slowly crosses the BBB – (heroin is more lipid soluble than morphine and rapidly enters the brain) • 3. Metabolism: Liver – The major metabolite is inactive – half-life is about 2 hours – Heroin is metabolized to morphine & codeine • • 4. Excretion: – Kidney: 90% of morphine is excreted within 24 hours – But morphine & it's metabolites can be detected 2-4 days Pharmacodynamics: • Mechanism of action: mimic the action of endogenous opioid peptides: – * endorphins (mu) – * enkephalins (delta) – * dynorphine (kappa) • These chemicals modulate the reactions to pain & stress Opioid receptors & location: 3 •...
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This note was uploaded on 11/02/2010 for the course PSYC 330 taught by Professor Lisman during the Spring '08 term at Binghamton University.

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Opiates - The Opiates History: • Eastern Mediterranean...

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