Opiates - The Opiates History Eastern Mediterranean...

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The Opiates History: Eastern Mediterranean cultures- Arab, Greek, Egyptian, Indian: Medicine & recreation uses Britain sold opium to China: Led to war and British control of Hong Kong Britain's East India Company waged three wars on the people of China in order to secure the right to sell opium. Late 1800-1900’s: Sold as tonic in the USA 1914 Harrison Narcotics Act Appearance Opium appears as dark brown chunks or as a powder and is usually smoked or eaten. Heroin can be a white or brownish powder Distinct alkaloids: 1. Morphine 2. Codeine Heroin is a semi-synthetic: It is derived from morphine and codeine. Natural and Synthetic Opiates: Synthesized opiates: During the past few years, synthetic opioids (such as Demerol, Percodan) have gained prominence as drugs of dependence. Medical Uses: Analgesia Decrease GI tract motility Cough suppressant Abuse: Heroin ("junk," "smack") accounts for about 90 percent of the opiate abuse Euphoria 1
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Sedation (calming) 2
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Pharmacokinetics: 1. Route of Administration: Oral: (tablets): absorption is slow and incomplete Injection: Subcutaneous (skin popping): Moderate onset IV: fast onset (2-10 sec) Inhalation (smoked): Almost as quick as IV 2. Distribution: binds to proteins in the blood distributes to most body tissues Slowly crosses the BBB (heroin is more lipid soluble than morphine and rapidly enters the brain) 3. Metabolism: Liver The major metabolite is inactive half-life is about 2 hours Heroin is metabolized to morphine & codeine 4. Excretion: Kidney: 90% of morphine is excreted within 24 hours But morphine & it's metabolites can be detected 2-4 days Pharmacodynamics: Mechanism of action: mimic the action of endogenous opioid peptides: * endorphins (mu) * enkephalins (delta) * dynorphine (kappa) These chemicals modulate the reactions to pain & stress Opioid receptors & location: 3
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