steroids - XI.HORMONES&STEROIDS DefineHormone:

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                                                                                Define Hormone: 1. A substance that is released for one type of cell and exerts its influence on  another type of cell 2. They are released into the blood stream and must travel some distance to the  target site Brain structures involved in production of sex hormones: * hypothalamus releases:    gonadotropin-releasing factor (GRF) hormone * pituitary gland releases: 1.  Female sex hormones: Estrogen progesterone Monthly cycle: 28 days The 4 stages of the estrous cycle 1. Proestrus: estrogen levels peak 2. Estrus: estrogen decreases 3. Metestrus (period) Estrogen, brain, and behavior -Estrogen has many effects on the brain.  It alters neurotransmitters (Ach, 5HT),  nerve-cell growth and connections between neurons -Behavioral effects 1. Mood: can enhance mood, but too little estrogen leads to depression,  too much can lead to anxiety/agitation 2. cognition: estrogen may enhance some (working memory, spatial) and  impair other forms of learning
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Oral contraceptives: 1960's: 1990's:  optimal balances have been achieved (30-35 mg) 1) Fixed combinations * no ovulation 2) multiphasic combinations:   constant variable   amounts P * reduce the total hormone content
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steroids - XI.HORMONES&STEROIDS DefineHormone:

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